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Gender and Green GovernanceThe Political Economy of Women's Presence Within and Beyond Community Forestry$
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Bina Agarwal

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780199569687

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569687.001.0001

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Violations and Penalties

Violations and Penalties

(p.259) 7 Violations and Penalties
Gender and Green Governance

Bina Agarwal

Oxford University Press

A study of rule violations signals how well an institution is functioning, whether the community is cooperating to protect the forest, and to what extent those in neighboring communities have accepted the ‘social fencing’ that forest protection implies. In assessing the potential impact of violations on resource condition, however, what matters is not only the number of violations but also for what product (e.g., timber or firewood). CFI's often specify formal penalties by product and frequency of violation, but there can be gaps between the penalties specified and those enforced. There can also be gaps between actual violations and perceptions about who violates (men or women, insiders or outsiders), and for what product. This chapter empirically examines these diverse aspects. It tests whether the extent and pattern of violations differ by the group's gender composition, and change over time.

Keywords:   rule enforcement, non-voluntary cooperation, perception bias, rule violations, selective enforcement, timber theft, firewood theft

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