The assumption that actions are explained by motive forces implies the doctrine of psychological determinism; and many doubt that Kant accepted that doctrine. This chapter argues that he did, and disputes textual evidence usually cited to prove otherwise, such as the so-called “incorporation thesis”. It argues further that the problem of justification and explanation cannot be solved without the assumption of psychological determinism. The so-called “power of free choice” (Willkür) is neither capable of explaining action, nor is it the way Kant assumed that our actions are explained.
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