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TobaccoScience, policy and public health$
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Peter Boyle, Nigel Gray, Jack Henningfield, John Seffrin, and Witold Zatonski

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780199566655

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566655.001.0001

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Manipulating product design to reinforce tobacco addiction

Manipulating product design to reinforce tobacco addiction

Chapter:
(p.171) Chapter 9 Manipulating product design to reinforce tobacco addiction
Source:
Tobacco
Author(s):

Geoffrey Ferris Wayne

Carrie M. Carpenter

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566655.003.0009

This chapter shows how tobacco manufacturers began programmes for manipulation of nicotine more than fifty years ago and refined these efforts over decades, altering product characteristics in order to sustain addictive levels of nicotine delivery despite reduced machine measured levels of tar and nicotine delivery. Product design and ingredients facilitate tobacco addiction through diverse addiction potentiating mechanisms. In addition to designs and ingredients that enhance nicotine self-administration and absorption (e.g., filter tip ventilation, menthol, and levulinic acid), ingredients may have their own direct pharmacologic effects that potentiate those of nicotine (e.g., acetaldehyde), ingredients may increase the free base fraction of nicotine (e.g. ammonia and urea-based compounds), and still other designs may increase the attractiveness of the product through the illusion of reduced harmfulness and even candy-like flavourings. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that tobacco products in general, and cigarettes in particular, though addictive by nature, carry enhanced addiction risk through modern designs that were intended to achieve this effect.

Keywords:   tobacco addiction, cigarette addiction, nicotine, product design, tobacco manufacturers

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