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Urban EcologyPatterns, Processes, and Applications$
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Jari Niemelä, Jürgen H. Breuste, Thomas Elmqvist, Glenn Guntenspergen, Philip James, and Nancy E. McIntyre

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199563562

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563562.001.0001

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Chapter:
(p.317) Summary
Source:
Urban Ecology
Author(s):

Philip James

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563562.003.0037

The concept of balance has emerged as a means to link social systems with ecological systems and to address a tricky ecological issue, that of scale. Behavioural economics tackles the perceived shortcomings of traditional economics and challenges the conventional assumption that people act out of self-interest, act independently of others, and make rational decisions. Behavioural economics emphasises the importance of framing the issue because it plays a significant role in decision-making. The main lesson that can be derived from this section is that we have the ecological knowledge to address the major ecological issues facing us at the start of the twenty-first century, particularly those related to human health, food shortage, and climate change.

Keywords:   balance, social systems, ecological systems, scale, behavioural economics, decision-making, human health, food shortage, climate change

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