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Urban EcologyPatterns, Processes, and Applications$
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Jari Niemelä, Jürgen H. Breuste, Thomas Elmqvist, Glenn Guntenspergen, Philip James, and Nancy E. McIntyre

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199563562

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563562.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 14 November 2019

Coupled Relationships between Humans and other Organisms in Urban Areas

Coupled Relationships between Humans and other Organisms in Urban Areas

Chapter:
(p.135) Chapter 3.1 Coupled Relationships between Humans and other Organisms in Urban Areas
Source:
Urban Ecology
Author(s):

Barbara Clucas

John M. Marzluff

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563562.003.0017

Humans have had profound effects on other organisms, altering natural environments and their species compositions worldwide. With the current global growth of urban areas, we are ever increasing the number and intensity of our interactions with the natural world. This chapter provides a brief background on the relationship between humans and natural systems and how complex feedback loops can emerge and form coupled systems. The chapter focuses on interactions between humans and other organisms, the selective forces they impose, and the potential outcomes of such relationships. It also describes in detail how a focal group of urban wildlife (birds) and humans interact in urban areas. To conclude, the chapter discusses how studying coupled relationships of humans and other organisms is a new direction of research for urban ecologists and some other potential areas to be explored.

Keywords:   birds, coupled relationships, humans, interactions, urban, urban wildlife

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