- Title Pages
- Preface
- List of abbreviations
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Review of ground-state density-functional theory
- 3 Fundamental existence theorems
- 4 The time-dependent Kohn–Sham scheme
- 5 Time-dependent observables
- 6 Properties of the time-dependent xc potential
- 7 The formal framework of linear-response TDDFT
- 8 The frequency-dependent xc kernel
- 9 Applications to atomic and molecular systems
- 10 Time-dependent current-DFT
- 11 The time-dependent optimized effective potential
- 12 Extended systems
- 13 TDDFT and many-body theory
- 14 Long–range correlations and dispersion interactions
- 15 Nanoscale transport and molecular junctions
- 16 Strong-field phenomena and optimal control
- 17 Nuclear motion
- Appendix A Atomic units
- Appendix B Functionals and functional derivatives
- Appendix C Densities and density matrices
- Appendix D Hartree–Fock and other wave-function approaches
- Appendix E Constructing the xc potential from a given density
- Appendix F DFT for excited states
- Appendix G Systems with noncollinear spins
- Appendix H The dipole approximation
- Appendix I A brief review of classical fluid dynamics
- Appendix J Constructing the scalar xc kernel from the tensor xc kernel
- Appendix K Semiconductor quantum wells
- Appendix L TDDFT in a Lagrangian frame
- Appendix M Inversion of the dielectric matrix
- Appendix N Review literature on DFT and many-body theory
- Appendix O TDDFT computer codes
- References
- Index

# Strong-field phenomena and optimal control

# Strong-field phenomena and optimal control

- Chapter:
- (p.374) 16 Strong-field phenomena and optimal control
- Source:
- Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory
- Author(s):
### Carsten A. Ullrich

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press

This chapter focuses on electronic phenomena that occur when atoms and molecules are exposed to strong and short laser pulses. Under these conditions, the external potential cannot be treated as a small perturbation. Several highly nonlinear effects are introduced and reviewed: multiphoton ionization, above-threshold ionization, and high-harmonic generation. The performance of time-dependent density-functional theory for these phenomena is discussed. A particular challenge is the enhancement of double ionization in rare-gas atoms, such as the so-called helium knee, due to strong correlation effects. This puts stringent demands on the exchange-correlation functional, and on the way in which one calculates ionization yields. Time-dependent density-functional theory has been successfully used to calculate high-harmonic spectra in atoms and molecules. Finally, the basics of optimal control theory are reviewed, and illustrated with an example. It is shown how control theory and time-dependent density-functional theory can be combined.

*Keywords:*
strong laser pulses, multiphoton ionization, above-threshold ionization, high-harmonic generation, rare-gas atoms, double ionization, optimal control theory

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- Title Pages
- Preface
- List of abbreviations
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Review of ground-state density-functional theory
- 3 Fundamental existence theorems
- 4 The time-dependent Kohn–Sham scheme
- 5 Time-dependent observables
- 6 Properties of the time-dependent xc potential
- 7 The formal framework of linear-response TDDFT
- 8 The frequency-dependent xc kernel
- 9 Applications to atomic and molecular systems
- 10 Time-dependent current-DFT
- 11 The time-dependent optimized effective potential
- 12 Extended systems
- 13 TDDFT and many-body theory
- 14 Long–range correlations and dispersion interactions
- 15 Nanoscale transport and molecular junctions
- 16 Strong-field phenomena and optimal control
- 17 Nuclear motion
- Appendix A Atomic units
- Appendix B Functionals and functional derivatives
- Appendix C Densities and density matrices
- Appendix D Hartree–Fock and other wave-function approaches
- Appendix E Constructing the xc potential from a given density
- Appendix F DFT for excited states
- Appendix G Systems with noncollinear spins
- Appendix H The dipole approximation
- Appendix I A brief review of classical fluid dynamics
- Appendix J Constructing the scalar xc kernel from the tensor xc kernel
- Appendix K Semiconductor quantum wells
- Appendix L TDDFT in a Lagrangian frame
- Appendix M Inversion of the dielectric matrix
- Appendix N Review literature on DFT and many-body theory
- Appendix O TDDFT computer codes
- References
- Index