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A New History of IrelandEarly Modern Ireland 1534-1691$
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T. W. Moody, F. X. Martin, and F. J. Byrne

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199562527

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562527.001.0001

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The Cromwellian Conquest, 1649–53

The Cromwellian Conquest, 1649–53

Chapter:
(p.336) Chapter XIII The Cromwellian Conquest, 1649–53
Source:
A New History of Ireland
Author(s):

Patrick J. Corish

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562527.003.0013

This chapter describes the reconquest of Ireland by Oliver Cromwell. The final defeat of Charles I and the replacement of the monarchy in 1649 by a puritan commonwealth was maintained by an army in which Oliver Cromwell was the ruling power. His first major task was the reconquest of Ireland. This was achieved by his unprecedented offensive of 1649–50, which, as followed up by his successors in Ireland during the next two years, put an end to nearly ten years of anarchy and reduced all the warring elements to submission. The conquest had been made easier by the divisions among the royalist forces: divisions between English and Irish, between Catholic and Protestant and internal divisions between Catholics. O’Neill's agreement with Ormond had been based on the understanding that a new petition be sent to the pope to grant absolution from Rinuccini's censures, thereby reviving an issue which had seriously divided the Catholic hierarchy. No general terms of surrender had been negotiated, and with few exceptions nothing had been guaranteed in the surrenders except freedom from immediate pillage. Cromwell's reply to the bishops' declaration at Clonmacnoise had made it clear that a vast confiscation of property was to be part of any final settlement.

Keywords:   Oliver Cromwell, English, Irish, Catholic, Protestant, O'Neill, Ormond, Rinuccini

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