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Marianne or Germania?Nationalizing Women in Alsace, 1870-1946$
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Elizabeth Vlossak

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780199561117

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561117.001.0001

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From Nazi Re-Annexation to Full Citizenship: The Final Stage of Nationalization, 1940–6

From Nazi Re-Annexation to Full Citizenship: The Final Stage of Nationalization, 1940–6

(p.253) 6 From Nazi Re-Annexation to Full Citizenship: The Final Stage of Nationalization, 1940–6
Marianne or Germania?

Elizabeth Vlossak

Oxford University Press

After France's defeat in June 1940, Alsace was re-annexed by Nazi Germany and incorporated into the Third Reich. An intensive policy to Germanize, de-Frenchify and Nazify the people of Alsace was introduced to the region. The final chapter uncovers how Alsatian women experienced the Nazi re-annexation, the role gender played in collaboration and resistance, the violence of the subsequent purges, the enfranchisement of French women by de Gaulle in 1944, and Alsatian women's first electoral experiences as full French citizens, culminating in the constitutional referendum of November 1946 that established the Fourth Republic. Historians argue that the horrors inflicted on the region by the Nazi regime achieved what all the efforts of the French state had failed to accomplish, namely the instilment of a strong attachment to the French nation. The fact that this took place concurrently with Alsatian women's full political inclusion in the nation-state is particularly significant.

Keywords:   Second World War, Nazi re-annexation, Germanization, Nazification, collaboration, resistance, purges, enfranchisement of women, Fourth Republic

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