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Innovation, Path Dependency, and PolicyThe Norwegian Case$
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Jan Fagerberg, David Mowery, and Bart Verspagen

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199551552

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551552.001.0001

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The Layers of National Innovation Systems: The Historical Evolution of a National Innovation System in Norway

The Layers of National Innovation Systems: The Historical Evolution of a National Innovation System in Norway

Chapter:
(p.33) 2 The Layers of National Innovation Systems: The Historical Evolution of a National Innovation System in Norway
Source:
Innovation, Path Dependency, and Policy
Author(s):

Olav Wicken

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551552.003.0002

The national innovation system (NIS) of Norway is characterized by diversity. This chapter examines the multiple and heterogeneous historical processes, each defined as a path, that have given rise to such diversity. Each of the paths has involved specific types of social groups, organizations, knowledge bases, and institutional set-ups, and for each path a specific type of innovation structure has been developed. The chapter defines three main historical paths emerging from three major industrial transformation processes in Western history defined as Industrial Revolutions. Each of these transformations created new industrial paths constituting a new layer in the economy. The Norwegian NIS is therefore described as the historical outcome of three diverse paths and consisting of three distinct layers. The creation of a new path does not indicate that the old paths of the economy remain static. Rather, each path historically has undergone radical transformation processes in order to remain competitive in changing environments. The main dynamics of the innovation system are therefore linked to path transformation and path creation processes.

Keywords:   NIS, Industrial Revolutions, path transformation, path creation

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