This chapter reviews the elements of band structure calculations, and introduces Bloch's theorem and the first Brillouin zone. It discusses various techniques for performing bandstructure calculations such as the free electron model, the pseudopotential method, and the tight binding approximation. It presents case studies for pseudopotential calculations of diamond and zincblende semiconductors, and for tight binding studies of the graphene band structure. It introduces the electron spin and spin orbit interaction effects relevant for the band structure. After the presentation of the band structure of a few important semiconductors, it discusses k.p perturbation theory including spin-orbit interaction effects. The chapter also describes the notion of the density of states and of constant energy surfaces, and the occupation statistics of semiconductor band structures. Selected band structure measurement techniques, such as optical interband transitions and photoemission spectroscopy are discussed.
Keywords: semiconductor band structure, spin-orbit interaction, Bloch's theorem, density of states, optical interband transitions, photoemission spectroscopy, tight-binding approximation, pseudopotential method, free electron model
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