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EconomicsVolume 2: India and the International Economy$

Jayati Ghosh

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199458943

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199458943.001.0001

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(p.vii) Tables and Figures

(p.vii) Tables and Figures

Source:
Economics
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Tables

  1. 1.1 Shares of World GDP: 1980–2010 13

  2. 1.2 Average Balance of Trade in Goods and Services: 2009–11 16

  3. 3.1 Sources of Export Growth (four-digit level): 2000–1 to 2007–8 and 2008–9 to 2011–12 79

  4. 3.2 Shares of Broad Categories of Imports (Select Items) 81

  5. 3.3 Growth in India’s Exports in Major Sectors 85

  6. 3.4 Decelerating Growth Rates of Major Agricultural Crops (compound growth rates of production) 89

  7. 3A.1 Sources of Export Growth (four-digit level): 2000–1 to 2007–8 and 2008–9 to 2011–12 (in detail) 97

  8. 4.1 Growth in Sectoral and Overall Output at Factor Cost and Constant Prices: 2002–9 121

  9. 4.2 Share of Sectors in Employment 125

  10. 4.3 Composition of Approved Outward FDI from India 138

  11. 4.4 H1B Admissions in USA by Country of Citizenship: Fiscal Years 2007–9 142

  12. 4.5 L1 Admissions in USA by Country of Citizenship: Fiscal Years 2007–9 142

  13. 4.6 Indian trained Nurses Registered per Annum in UK for the period 1998–2004 143

  14. 4.7 FDI Restrictiveness Index 2010 147

  15. (p.viii) 5.1 Sector-wise FDI Inflows to India (as a share of total FDI inflows, 2000–12) 176

  16. 5.2 Evolution of Indian OFDI over the Years 184

  17. 5.3 Some Major Financial Crises since the 1990s 195

  18. 6.1 Total Domestic Support granted by the United States (1995–2007) 233

  19. 6.2 Shares of Components in US Domestic Support 233

  20. 6.3 Domestic Support granted by the EC (1995–6 to 2009–10) 234

  21. 6.4 Shares of Components in EC Domestic Support 234

  22. 6.5 European Communities: Outlays on Export Subsidies 238

  23. 6.6 United States: Outlays on Export Subsidies 240

  24. 6.7 Food Aid provided by the United States 242

  25. 6.8 Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programmes of the United States Authorized under the Farm Acts 244

  26. 6.9 Use of Non–Ad Valorem Tariffs by Select WTO Members 246

  27. 6.10 Comparison of Ad Valorem Equivalents of Non–Ad Valorem Tariffs with Average Bound Tariffs 247

  28. 6.11 Evidence of High Ad Valorem Equivalents of Non–Ad Valorem Tariffs Switzerland 248

  29. 6.12 Number of Applicable Tariff Quotas: 1995–2011 249

  30. 6.13 Total Number of Scheduled TRQs by Years and Members 249

  31. 6.14 Simple Average Fill Rates by Member: 2002–2011 250

  32. 6.15 US Product-specific Support and Proposed Caps 253

  33. 6.16 EC Product-specific Support and Proposed Caps 253

  34. 6.17 Reductions in Average Bound Duties Resulting from NAMA Chair’s Proposals 261

  35. 6.18 Textual Proposals on Non-tariff Barriers 262

  36. 6.19 List of Tariff Sectoral Initiatives Proposed 265

  37. 7.1 Tariff Reduction Scenario in Major Sectors involved in India’s Two-way Trade with ASEAN 302

  38. 8.1 Linear Correlation between Trade Ratios and Global Food Price Index 338

  39. (p.ix) 8.2 Changes in Composition of Agricultural Exports: 1991–2 to 2009–10 339

  40. 8.3 Changes in Composition of Agricultural Imports: 1991–2 to 2009–10 339

  41. 8.4 Correlation between Domestic and World Prices of Select Commodities 342

  42. 8.5 Trade and Price Policy during Different Phases of Global Prices 342

  43. 8.6 Foodgrain Production, Availability, and Instability 344

  44. 8.7 Frequency Distribution of Superiority of Trade vs Buffer Stock as Stabilization Measures during Production being Higher or Lower than Trend: 1974 to 2000 347

  45. 8A.1 Export, Import, and Trade Surplus of Agriculture Sector 353

  46. 8A.2 Ratio of Export to Value of Domestic Production of Agriculture Sector 354

  47. 10A.1 Migration Statistics based on Census Data 430

  48. 10A.2 Migrants by Place of Last Residence, Indicating Migration Streams 430

  49. 10B.1 NSSO 64th Round: Reasons for Migration 431

  50. 10B.2 NSSO 64th Round: Data on Migration (Household-level characteristics) 431

  51. 10B.3 Number of Migrants per 1,000 of Each Social Group: All India 431

  52. 10C.1 Source Regions of Workers’ Remittances to India 432

  53. 11.1 Share of Various GHGs at Global Level in 2011 444

  54. 11.2 Top Ten GHG Emitters of the World in 2011 444

  55. 11.3 Top Ten Emitters of CO2 in 2012 445

  56. 11.4 Sector-wise Shares in GHG Emissions 447

  57. 11.5 India’s Sectoral Contribution to GDP in 1991 and 2007 447

  58. 11.6 Relative Per Capita GHG Emissions 448

  59. 11.7 Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions for India 449

  60. 11.8 Trend in Energy Intensity for India 458

  61. 11.9 CO2 Emissions/Total Primary Energy Supply 459

(p.x) Figures

  1. 1.1 Elements of Balance of Payments 7

  2. 1.2 Elements of Capital Account 8

  3. 1.3 Trade Indices 9

  4. 1.4 Share of World Merchandise Exports 13

  5. 1.5 Share of World Exports of Commercial Services 14

  6. 1.6 Balance on Goods and Services Trade 15

  7. 2.1 Composition of India’s Merchandise Exports 38

  8. 2.2 Employment in Organized Sectors—Public and Private 46

  9. 2.3 Composition of India’s Total Exports 48

  10. 2.4 Composition of India’s Services Exports 48

  11. 3.1 Annual Rate of Growth of Exports since the 1990s 69

  12. 3.2 Annual Rate of Growth of Imports since the 1990s 69

  13. 3.3 Ratio of Merchandise Trade to GDP 70

  14. 3.4 Exports, Imports, and Trade Balance: 1990–1 to 2011–12 70

  15. 3.5 Direction of India’s Exports 72

  16. 3.6 Composition of Principal Exports by Sectors 75

  17. 3.7 Composition of Principal Exports of Manufactured Goods by Sectors 76

  18. 3.8 Composition of Engineering Goods Exports 77

  19. 3.9 Engineering Goods Exports 78

  20. 3.10 Imports: Oil and Non-oil 80

  21. 3.11 Share of Various Components of Capital Goods Imports in Total Imports 82

  22. 3.12 India’s Oil Exports 86

  23. 3.13 India’s Trade Deficit in Bulk Drugs 92

  24. 3.14 Auto Components Exports 93

  25. 3.15 Growing Trade Deficit in Auto Components 93

  26. 3.16 Movements in Real Effective Exchange Rate 95

  27. 3B.1 Relationship between Relative Prices of Diesel and Export Volumes 102

  28. 3B.2 Relationship between Relative Prices of Petrol and Export Volume 102

  29. (p.xi) 4.1 International Trade in Services for Different Economies 115

  30. 4.2 Restrictiveness of Services Trade Policies by GDP Per Capita: 2007 120

  31. 4.3 Compound Annual Growth Rate for Services and GDP in India: 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s 122

  32. 4.4 CAGR for Select Service Subsectors, 2000–9 123

  33. 4.5 Composition of GDP across Sectors 124

  34. 4.6 Average Growth Rate of Services Exports for Select Countries, 2000–10 127

  35. 4.7 India’s Share in World Services Exports and Imports: 1980–2010 128

  36. 4.8 Average Annual Growth Rate of Goods and Services Exports: 1980–2010 129

  37. 4.9 Share in World Exports of Goods and Services: 1980–2010 129

  38. 4.10 India’s Revealed Comparative Advantage in Services and Goods Exports: 1980–2010 130

  39. 4.11a Composition of Services Exports: 2009 131

  40. 4.11b Composition of Services Exports: 2000 131

  41. 4.11c Composition of Services Exports: 1995 132

  42. 4.12 Net Export Earnings from Different Services: 2000, 2005, and 2008 133

  43. 4.13 India’s RCA for Select Categories of Services Exports: 2009 134

  44. 4.14 Annual FDI Inflows into Manufacturing and Services: 2008–9 and 2009–10 135

  45. 4.15a Composition of FDI Inflows in Services: 2009 136

  46. 4.15b Composition of FDI Inflows in Services: 2000–5 136

  47. 4.16 Trends in IT–BPO Revenue: 2000–10 139

  48. 4.17 Contribution of IT–BPO Revenues to GDP 140

  49. 4.18 Direct Employment in the IT–BPO Sector: 2007–10 141

  50. 4.19 Growth Rates of Value Added in Select Services in India in the 1990s and Liberalization 150

  51. 5.1 Composition of Capital Flows to Emerging and Developing Countries: 1980–95 173

  52. 5.2 FDI Inflows to India 176

  53. (p.xii) 5.3 FDI Inflow Figures for India 182

  54. 5.4 Foreign Portfolio Capital Inflows and FDI Inflows to India 188

  55. 6.1 Cost Price Comparison: US Wheat 236

  56. 6.2 Cost Price Comparison: US Rice 236

  57. 7.1 Average Applied MFN Tariffs (including AVEs) 297

  58. 7.2 India’s Shares in China’s and South Korea’s Exports and Imports 299

  59. 7.3 India’s Shares in Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam’s Exports and Imports 300

  60. 7.4 India’s Shares in Singapore and Malaysia’s Exports and Imports 301

  61. 7.5 ASEAN–India Trade Relationship: 1995–2010 307

  62. 7.6 Distribution of India’s Tariff Lines based on Tariff Bands (2009 and 2010) 309

  63. 8.1 Trade in Agri-food Products: 1981–2 to 2008–9 335

  64. 8.2 Ratio of Trade to Output of Agriculture Sector 336

  65. 8.3 Global Food Price Index: Base 2005 = 100 337

  66. 8.4 Annual Rate of Inflation in Wheat Prices, Month to Month 349

  67. 8.5 Annual Rate of Inflation in Rice Prices, Month to Month 349

  68. 11.1 Top Ten GHG Emitters of the World in 2011 445

  69. 11.2 Top Ten Emitters of CO2 in 2012 446

  70. 11.3 Trend in Co2 Emissions from India 449