In contrast to conventional studies that interpret the interwar period in state-centric terms, this chapter reveals the wide variety of transnational relations that developed at that time. It commences by showing how, despite its short-term deleterious consequences for transnational civil society, the First World War provided opportunities for a new generation of international NGOs to develop. These associations were influential at the Paris Peace Conference and they established extensive working relations with the League of Nations, with their influence peaking at the World Disarmament Conference. However, the chapter also shows how factors that in the short term had facilitated the expansion of transnational civil society were in the long term to contribute towards its contraction in the period from the Great Depression to the Second World War.
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