Europeans were not the only creators of settler societies in the period 1500–1800, and they were not the world's only gunpowder imperialists either. Islamic empires were also on the rise. The Ottoman Turks expanded across North Africa and completed the conquest of the Balkans — a 450,000 square mile Asian empire in Europe. They besieged Vienna in 1683 and came so close to taking it that the Holy Roman Emperor fled his capital. Iran may actually have saved Europe by ensuring that the Turks did not have things all their own way, even in the Middle East. Iran controlled Baghdad in the 1620s and 1630s, and generally ensured that the Ottomans always had to be wary of a second front. Muslim heirs of Tamerlane conquered most of India and established the Mughal Empire between 1555 and 1596. In China, 17th-century Manchu conquerors established the Qing dynasty and carried the Chinese Empire to its modern apogee in the 18th century.
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