Recent interest in dog behaviour has been overwhelmed by questions on socio-cognitive abilities in this species. This chapter refers to such abilities in a broad sense, that is, it includes aggressive and affiliative behaviours, in addition to various forms of interactions that occur among group mates such as communication, cooperation, play, and social learning. Most aspects of socio-cognitive behaviour are reviewed from an evolutionary perspective, suggesting that during evolution (domestication) dogs have changed patterns of social behaviour to adapt to living and surviving in the anthropogenic environment. It has been widely accepted that compared to wolves, dogs are at an advantage in showing attachment, complex communicative behaviours, or social learning skills when living in a human dominated environment; the same is true for cooperative abilities. In spite of this, there are many open questions how these traits are influenced by genetic (e.g., breeds) and environmental (e.g., socialization) factors.
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