This chapter deals with one of the most long-debated question about how dogs became domesticated. Traditional understanding of this process was based on the finding of archaeologists that are, however, restricted to only a few geographic locations and time periods. The possibility of scientific inquiry about domestication has changed with the introduction of novel phylogenetic approaches based on molecular biological methods, which, however, are also not without problems. The chapter provides an introduction to constraints presented by both the archaeological and the phylogenetic investigations, and reviews the problems of tracing genetic evolution. Finally, a possible multi-step framework for dog domestication is presented.
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