This chapter argues that to see the divisions within English Protestantism in terms of ‘Church’ and ‘Dissent’ is simplistic. The boundaries between the two (and between different Dissenting denominations) were fuzzy. There were also deep divisions within the Church (between High and Low Church) and among Dissenters — above all between traditional Calvinist denominations on one hand (Presbyterians, Independents, and in some cases particular Baptists) and Quakers on the other. The chapter also considers the incidence of persecution under Charles II and the impact of the Toleration Act of 1689.
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