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The Oxford Latin SyntaxVolume 1: The Simple Clause$

Harm Pinkster

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199283613

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199283613.001.0001

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Verb frames

Verb frames

Chapter:
(p.71) Chapter 4 Verb frames
Source:
The Oxford Latin Syntax
Author(s):

Harm Pinkster

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199283613.003.0004

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter deals with the valency of verbs and adjectives in Latin, making a distinction between one-, two-, and three-place verbs and one- and two-place adjectives. Contexts are discussed in which arguments can be omitted (so-called absolute use). By contrast, other verbs are discussed that are used in more or less fixed combinations, so-called support verb constructions. After an introductory section on the concept of valency, the valency frames of verbs and adjectives are discussed in a systematic way using both formal parameters (the use of cases and prepositions) and semantic ones. Special attention is devoted to auxiliary verbs and copular verbs and the ways to distinguish them from other verbs.

Keywords:   valency, verb frames, adjective frames, cases with verbs, prepositions with verbs, support verbs, copular verbs, auxiliaries

This chapter deals with verb frames, described in § 2.8 as the constellation or constellations of arguments related to a verb in accordance with its meaning or meanings. The chapter begins with some general observations on the way the valency of a verb can be established and the difficulties involved.1 After this the various frames will be presented. The first type of frame that will be discussed is that of one-place (monovalent) verbs, that is, verbs that require only one argument. Next come two-place (bivalent) and three-place (trivalent) verbs. Finally, attention will be paid to verbs that do not require an argument to complete their meaning (such as pluit ‘it is raining’) and are for that reason called zerovalent. Separate sections are devoted to the copula sum ‘to be’ and other copular verbs as well as to auxiliary (modal and phasal) verbs. The concept of valency is also relevant to adjectives and nouns. Adjectives are discussed in §§ 4.99–4.104. Nouns are discussed in the chapter on the noun phrase (see § 11.70).

Verbs not only differ in the number of arguments they require, but also in the type of arguments that may fill the position or positions in the frame. In this chapter, nominal arguments will be the focus of attention. The use of the noun as the second argument of the verb dico ‘to tell’ in ex. (a) provides an illustration. A survey of the types of arguments that can be used in the various positions in a verb frame is given in Chapter 9. Clausal arguments, such as the accusative and infinitive clause functioning as second argument of dico in (b), are discussed in Chapters 15 and 17.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(p.72) Within the sections on the various (one-place, two-place, three-place) verb frames a further distinction is made according to the formal marking of the arguments, by cases and/or by prepositions. Since the formal marking of the arguments is sometimes related to the meaning of the verb, further subclassifications according to the meaning of the verbs are made when this may help to understand why a particular marking is used. This means that much information on ‘the use of case X or preposition Y with verb Z’ that one finds in traditional grammars is found in this chapter and not in a chapter on the uses of the individual cases and prepositions.

Obviously, only a small selection of verbs can be discussed and none of them completely. For individual verbs the professional Latinist should always consult the lemmata of the Oxford Latin Dictionary or the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae.

4.1 Methodological and practical problems in establishing the valency of a verb

4.2 Context

The first practical problem involved in defining the valency of a verb and establishing the verb frame(s) in which it is used stems from the fact that we are dealing with a corpus in which clauses normally do not occur in isolation. In Latin, more than in English, arguments can be left unexpressed when they have been properly introduced into the discourse. This problem is especially relevant for second and third arguments and receives some attention in Chapter 9 on arguments. For establishing the valency of a verb such contextually given but unexpressed constituents should be taken into account.

4.3 Distinguishing arguments and satellites

Once this problem is solved, the next task is to make a distinction between arguments and satellites (see § 2.2). Arguments are those constituents which are required by the meaning of the verb, in the sense that the clause would become ungrammatical (or the verb would turn out to have a different meaning) if that particular constituent were eliminated and could not be inferred from the context or situation. Usually it is not very difficult to distinguish arguments from adjuncts, that is, satellites that specify in some way the state of affairs expressed by the nucleus (the verb and its argument(s)). However, not all adjuncts can be combined randomly with any nucleus. Instrument and manner adjuncts, for example, are almost entirely restricted in their use to controllable states of affairs (see § 10.42), and there are also restrictions on the use of adjuncts of duration and of time within which (see § 10.31 and § 10.36). These types of adjuncts are ‘sensitive’ to the meaning of the nucleus and, in that respect, resemble arguments.

(p.73) Prepositional phrases with de ‘about’ are another example. They are often used as adjuncts in combination with states of affairs that refer to the exchange of information, as in (a). In this example dixit and dixerit govern a second argument in the accusative (quod and aliquid, respectively). De ambabus and de me are adjuncts. However, when there is no such argument, as with rogare in (b), the de phrase might be regarded as an argument instead.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

A further complication involved in distinguishing arguments and adjuncts results from the fact that not only the verb itself, but also its nominal arguments may have an influence on the valency of the nucleus. Source phrases with the preposition ab may serve as an example. They are common as adjuncts with a number of verbs.2 Among these is peto in its meaning ‘to fetch’, ‘to procure’ (OLD s.v. § 6), for example, argentum ‘silver’ in (c). Ab phrases are also common with peto when it is combined with two-place nouns that imply the co-involvement of another entity, such as auxilium ‘help’, beneficium ‘kindness’, pacem ‘peace’, veniam ‘pardon’ (with peto here meaning ‘to request’, ‘to solicit’—OLD s.v. § 8), as in (d).3 The precise status of the source expression in the latter is difficult to define. It is clearly a manifestation of the involvement of a second entity in bringing about what the agent wants to achieve, so we can describe it as a source argument required by the combination peto auxilium. This may explain why in this combination peto is often translated as if equivalent to rogo ‘to ask’. However, whereas with rogo co-involvement constitutes part of its meaning, peto in these combinations still means ‘to go after’, ‘to try to obtain’. The nouns involved are less common with rogo and if they are used, they are in the double accusative expression that is common with rogo, as in (e). For a double accusative with peto, see § 4.72.

(c) Verb frames

(p.74) (d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

4.4 Support verbs

Whereas peto in the preceding section can still be said to have its own meaning when combined with the nouns mentioned, this is not the case, or is less clear-cut, with a number of two- and three-place verbs of a rather general meaning that are used with abstract (often verbal) nouns as their second arguments in more or less fixed (sometimes called ‘analytic’ or ‘periphrastic’) combinations. In these combinations, further arguments do not depend on the verb but rather on the noun. These verbs are called SUPPORT VERBS in this Syntax.4 Often the meaning of the complex expression comes close to that of a simple verb that is semantically and formally related to the abstract noun. This is illustrated in (a)–(d) for combinations of verbs with an object constituent.5

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames6

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

In (a), the verb insidior could have been used instead, as it is two lines below. Do may have been used to make the involvement of the agent more explicit, or for the sake of (p.75) variation. In (b), saltat would have signified continuous jumping instead of incidental jumps. In (c), movebant alone might indicate involuntary movement; this would exclude the addition of a manner adjunct (indecore), whereas the support verb construction has the advantage of allowing the adjective indecoros. Likewise, in (d) the combination messim facere instead of metere allows the addition of primam.

In (b) and (c), the two-place expressions can be regarded as variations on a one-place frame, a form of ‘externalizing’ shown below in § 4.10 for cognate objects. In fact, these instances are often regarded as cognate objects. The most frequent support verbs are affero ‘to bring about’, ago ‘to make’, ‘to do’, capio ‘to take’, do ‘to give’, facio ‘to make’, fero ‘to carry’, gero ‘to bear’, and habeo ‘to have’, all of which govern an accusative object (and are thus passivizable).7 However, other verbs are used in this way as well, such as utor ‘to use’ + ablative and various verb + prepositional phrase combinations: sum + in + ablative and versor + in + ablative ‘to be involved in’; and venio + in + accusative ‘to come to (mind)’, ‘to be included in (a category)’, etc.

An interesting instance of variation in the translation of a Greek support verb can be seen in Vulg. I Macc. 10.15, where the Greek text τοὺς κόπους οὕς ἔσχον‎ is translated labores quos laboraverunt. The Vetus Latina has either habuerunt or passi sunt.

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Aperite hasce ambas fores / prius quam pultando assulatim foribus exitium affero. (Pl. Capt. 831–2);…mentio a te facta pacis suspicionem multis attulit immutatae voluntatis. (Cic. Phil. 12.18); Ille contra haec omnia. / Ruri agere vitam, semper parce ac duriter / se habere. (Ter. Ad. 44–6);…civium curam ago? (Liv. 6.15.11);…aut ne laborem capias quom illo uti voles? (Pl. Mer. 146); Eorum una pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano…(Caes. Gal. 1.1.5); Cur autem (sc. ista auguratio) de passerculis coniecturam facit…? (Cic. Div. 2.65); Antonius solus contumelia naturae vilitatem auro fecit. (Plin. Nat. 33.50); Si…res publica aliqua faciat venditionem…(Ulp. dig. 21.1.1.4); Simul Alcumenae, quam vir insontem probri / Amphitruo accusat, veni ut auxilium feram. (Pl. Am. 869–70); Quid mi opu’st decurso aetatis spatio cum <m>eis / gerere bellum…(Pl. St. 81–2);…ego referam sermones eos quos de agri cultura habuimus nuper…(Var. R. 1.1.7); Proximis diebus habetur extra urbem senatus. (Caes. Civ. 1.6.1);…quae difficilem curationem habeant…(Cels. 5.26.1.C); Interiores simplicius et antiquius permutatione mercium utuntur. (Tac. Germ. 5.3);

Quo quid absurdius quam aut res sordidas atque deformis deorum honore adficere aut homines iam morte deletos reponere in deos, quorum omnis cultus esset futurus in luctu. (Cic. N.D. 1.38); Quod cum isti renuntiaretur de basi ac litteris, existimavit homines in oblivionem totius negotii esse venturos, si etiam basim tamquam indicem sui sceleris sustulisset. (Cic. Ver. 4.79); (sc. philosophos) quod in veri investigatione versentur…propterea iustos esse. (Cic. Off. 1.28);

(p.76) One and the same verb can be found with a variety of abstract nouns, so for example do ‘to give’ with copiam ‘grant power/ability’, negotium ‘charge’ or ‘commission’, pugnam ‘fight a battle’, and spatium ‘give way’ or ‘make room’. In these combinations do does not have its literal meaning of ‘transfer’, and if a dative argument is present it cannot easily be regarded as the ‘recipient’, Moreover, the nouns themselves lose their independence to some extent in that they relatively often precede the verb and are rarely modified by a relative clause or by adjectives other than those of quantity. However, in contrast with actual idioms the resulting constructions remain fully grammatical.

Conversely, one and the same abstract noun may be used with a number of the verbs mentioned, so for example spem ‘hope’ with affero, capio, do, facio, habeo, and pono alongside spero ‘to hope’. In comparison with the verb spero, spem capio can be regarded as an ingressive and spem do as a causative correlate of the simple verb spero. Apart from semantic factors that may favour the use of a complex expression there may also be a syntactic factor involved, as illustrated in (e), where an ablative absolute clause would not have been possible with the simplex verb meto.

(e) Verb frames

This type of expression is frequent in didactic texts, but not restricted to these. It has been maintained that it is typical of colloquial Latin, but it is quite common in Cicero’s philosophical works as well.8

A verb and its object, when used together often, may develop into an idiom and create the possibility, and often the need, of adding another participant. Here are a few examples of two types of such an expansion of complex expressions. Firstly, the whole constellation may look like a three-place frame with a third argument that formally seems to be a recipient in the dative, even though semantically it functions as an experiencer rather than a recipient, as in (f). Along the same lines such complex expressions often occur with constituents which formally look like satellites, but seem to be obligatory in the combination. An example is (g). (For examples of object incorporation see § 4.79.)

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(p.77) Supplement:

…maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar, maiores etiam habemus. (Cic. Marc. 33); Ego me iniuriam fecisse filiae fateor tuae…(Pl. Aul. 794);…cui maximam fidem suarum rerum habeat (Cic. Ver. 2.131);

The same phenomenon is also very common with the copula in combination with dative nouns functioning as subject complement (the so-called predicative dative—see § 9.34). This combination in turn governs a noun or noun phrase in the dative, as nobis in (h). The combination auxilio fuit behaves like the verb auxilior ‘to give help’, which also governs a dative. Ex. (i) is comparable, with auxilio functioning as a secondary predicate. The same analysis is possible in (j), but with mitto a dative may also be used for the recipient when there is no predicative dative. Also, in cases like (k), one may consider the combination of sum and the noun curatio a support verb construction (see § 11.71).

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

(k) Verb frames

4.5 Problems in determining the valency of a verb: Expansion and reduction of the number of arguments

Quite a few verbs appear to be used in more than one argument configuration, not only when a different meaning of the verb corresponds to each configuration (see § 2.8 on dico), but also when the verb’s meaning appears to be the same. On the one hand, one-place verbs can under certain conditions be expanded with a second argument, as is illustrated by the verb somnio ‘to dream’. Conversely, two-place verbs can be used without their second argument; this is illustrated by the verb bibo ‘to drink’.9

Some verbs that at first sight seem to be one-place verbs are sometimes combined with a second constituent, which behaves like a second argument in many respects, while the meaning of the verb seems to be the same in both situations. This is, for example, the case with the verb somnio ‘to dream’, which can also be used in (p.78) combination with the accusative noun somnium in the meaning ‘to dream a dream’. In this construction somnium resembles a second argument functioning as the object, like vinum in bibo vinum ‘to drink wine’. The question therefore arises whether we should assign two valencies and two verb frames to somnio or only one. In this Syntax one frame will be assigned if a verb is used in multiple combinations, but with the same meaning.10 Determining whether the meaning is the same to some extent depends on intuition, but corroboration can be found by studying the constituents with which the verb is combined and by comparing verbs with their (near-)synonyms and antonyms. Furthermore, statistical data (which combinations are the most frequent in our corpus?) play an important role. In order to explain the other configurations in which a verb is used, an attempt is made to describe under which conditions they are used. In this particular case, somnio is considered a one-place verb; the explanation for the use of somnio somnium is given in § 4.10 in the paragraph on the so-called cognate object. Other types of EXPANSION of one-place verbs are discussed there as well.

The reverse situation (REDUCTION of the number of arguments) can be illustrated by the verb bibo, already mentioned in the preceding paragraph. This verb is typically used with an animate subject and a liquid as its object (vinum, for example), so it is considered a two-place verb. In the OLD this is the first type of use recognized; it is labelled ‘transitive’. Examples are (a) and (b).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

However, not infrequently bibo is used without a second argument, as in (c). The relationship between the first argument and the verb is the same in both frames and the meaning of bibo is also the same.

(c) Verb frames

Grammars and dictionaries often call this the ABSOLUTE use of the verb: it is the act of drinking as such, without further specification of the entity drunk. The OLD calls this use ‘intransitive’. Preferred contexts for the absolute use of two-place verbs are definitions, proverbs, and enumerations, and infinitival and gerundial forms are relatively frequent.11 Two more examples are (d) and (e).

(p.79) (d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Supplement:

Senatorum enim urna copiose absolvit, equitum adaequavit, tribuni aerarii condemnarunt. (Cic. Q. fr. 2.5.4); Nemo apud eos (sc. Hunnos) arat…(Amm. 31.2.10); FACITIS·VOBIS·SUAVITER·EGO CANTO. (CIL IV.3442a (Pompeii));…illum identidem monere ut caveret…(Cic. S. Rosc. 110); St! / Tace atque abi. Nec paro neque hodie coquetur…(Pl. Cas. 149–50); Ad quem fruendum non modo non retardat, verum etiam invitat atque adlectat senectus. (Cic. Sen. 57);

Bibo is also found with other entities as its arguments.12 Instead of an animate first argument we find, for example, metreta ‘jar’ and hortus ‘garden’. In combination with a liquid as its object (e.g. oleum ‘oil’) bibo means ‘absorb’. In this meaning it can be used absolutely as well. Especially in poetry, the range of second arguments can extend from liquids to other concrete entities, so that bibo comes to mean something like ‘swallow’. Finally, poets can use an abstract entity for the second argument, as in (f) and (g). Note that in (f) the interpretation is facilitated by the use of aure. This use is manifestly two-place. There is no need to set up separate frames for these cases of bibo. The specific interpretations are entirely brought about by the combination of these ‘abnormal’ entities with bibo.

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

Other verbs that denote ‘consuming liquid’ are sorbeo ‘to suck up’ and haurio ‘to swallow’. With these two verbs, which denote a special manner of drinking, the (p.80) absolute use is uncommon (see note below). Bibo, by contrast, is the neutral form of drinking and perhaps for this reason it is used relatively often without a further specification of the entity drunk. The existence of other verbs with roughly the same meaning which are clearly two-place verbs may be taken as support for considering bibo a two-place verb as well.

An instance of an absolute use of sorbeo is Pl. Mos. 791: Simul flare sorbereque hau factu facile est (‘Whistling and drinking at the same time is a difficult thing to do.’). TLL mentions two instances of the absolute use of haurio (‘to drink’, ‘to swallow’) in Curtius (7.5.15) and Pliny the Elder (Nat. 13.139). In both cases, the context supplies the necessary information.

The OLD distinguishes a second type of intransitive use of bibo, as illustrated in (h) and (i).

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

In these examples the object of bibo is understood by convention: ‘to drink intoxicating liquor’ (OLD) (CONVENTIONAL REDUCTION of arguments). In English, drink in this sense is used in a number of special expressions: ‘John drinks too much’, ‘John is a drinker’. The Latin noun bibitor ‘drinker’, ‘toper’ is used in the same specialized way. In this case it is doubtful whether the meaning of bibo is the same as in (a)­–(c), so one might regard this use as a separate one-place frame.

4.6 Final remarks

This section has shown that determining the valency of a verb is not always an easy task. In one of the earliest and most complete discussions of valency in Latin, a distinction is introduced between ‘obligatory’ and ‘facultative’ arguments, to deal with, for example, the de expressions in § 4.3.13 Other scholars think that there is a gradient between highly obligatory and weak arguments.14 Finally, there are some scholars who are highly critical of using the concept of valency at all.15 In this chapter due attention will be paid to borderline cases.

(p.81) 4.7 Some statistical information

Before dealing with the individual frames, it is useful to give some statistical information concerning their overall frequency. Different types of text deal with different situations in the real world and therefore contain different verbs and arguments. This is shown in Figure 4.1. In four different passages of text of roughly the same length (taken from comedy, didactic prose, a letter, and epic poetry, respectively) the proportion between sum, one-place, two-place, and three-place verbs varies. Nevertheless, it is clear that two-place verbs are the most common by far.16 They fulfil a central role in human communication, which often deals with the way human beings are engaged with other entities. Zerovalent verbs are statistically almost negligible and are absent from these samples.

Verb frames

Figure 4.1 Percentual frequency of verbs

Pl. Mil. 1–78

N = 116

Cato Agr. 1.1.1–1.2.3

N = 132

Cic. Att. 1.5

N = 105

Verg. A. 1.1–75

N = 99

4.8 One-place verbs

One-place verbs include both verbs like curro ‘to run’ and dormio ‘to sleep’, which are traditionally called ‘intransitive’ verbs, and verbs like licet ‘it is permitted’. The latter verb is usually called impersonal,17 although it has a subject (viz. a subordinate clause). The (historical) reason for calling licet impersonal is that it occurs almost (p.82) exclusively in the third person singular form and without a personal subject. The two types of one-place verbs (‘personal’ and ‘impersonal’) are discussed separately.

4.9 Personal one-place verbs

Personal one-place verbs have only one argument, which fulfils the function of subject in the clause and with which the verb agrees in person/number (and gender, where applicable). As will be seen, many verbs that usually require only one argument can be extended in some way with a second argument or stand in a systematic semantic and formal relationship to other uses of the same lexeme. One-place verbs can be active or deponent.18

Prototypical one-place verbs—that is, ones that almost always occur in one-place constructions—are mainly of the following types:

  1. (i) Processes in which human beings (for some verbs also non-human entities) are involuntarily involved: the first argument fulfils the semantic function of patient. To some of these verbs an (animate) agent or (inanimate) force may be added.

    (a) Verb frames

    (b) Verb frames

    Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

    …sus usque adeo pinguitudine crescere solet…(Cato Orig. 39);…ut homines, cum viderent, aut ipsam videre se Cererem aut effigiem Cereris non humana manu factam, sed de caelo lapsam arbitrarentur…(Cic. Ver. 5.187);…ut fame senatores quinque morerentur. (Cic. Att. 6.1.6); M. Marcello circa mortem, cum periit ab Hannibale, defuit in extis. (Plin. Nat. 11.189); AGER…QUEI ROMAE PUBLICE VENIEI<T> VENIERITVE. (CIL. I2.585.75 (Lex Agr., Rome, 111 BC));

  2. (ii) States in which animate beings or inanimate entities are involved: the first argument fulfils the semantic function of patient. Verbs in -sco, like calesco ‘to become hot’, which denote a process in which an animate or inanimate entity is involved as a patient, are derivationally related to some of them.

    (p.83) (c) Verb frames

    (d) Verb frames

    Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

    Nihil mihi…interesse ardeat balineum an caleat. (Sen. Ep. 86.10); Ille suae contra non immemor artis omnia transformat sese in miracula rerum, ignemque horribilemque feram fluviumque liquentem. (Verg. G. 4.440–2);…venae et arteriae micare non desinunt quasi quodam igneo motu…(Cic. N.D. 2.24);…folia eius (calthae) olent, non flores. (Plin. Nat. 21.28);

  3. (iii) Psychological and physiological states which animate beings (rarely other entities, e.g. with sudo) involuntarily undergo as experiencers.

    (e) Verb frames

    (f) Verb frames

    Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

    Familiae male ne sit, ne algeat, ne esuriat. (Cato Agr. 5.2);…leges…Lycurgi laboribus erudiunt iuventutem venando currendo, esuriendo sitiendo, algendo, aestuando. (Cic. Tusc. 2.34);…qui valetudinis vitio furerent…(Cic. Div. 1.81);…sanu’ sim anne insaniam! (Ter. Eu. 556); Si quando incidit pecus in spem nascentis, hoc deprehenditur signo: ove, cum comederit, dormiente protinus, capra sternuente crebrius. (Plin. Nat. 19.40);…stomachor vero cum aliorum non me digna in me conferuntur. (Cic. Planc. 35);

  4. (iv) Physiological activities in which animate beings are voluntarily involved as agents.

    (g) Verb frames

    (h) Verb frames

    Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

    …pueri…saltare et cantare…didicerunt. (Cic. Catil. 2.23);…neque dormire excitatus neque vigilare ebrius poterat…(Cael. ap. Quint. Inst. 4.2.124);…(piscem) in aqua sinito ludere…(Ter. Ad. 377);

  5. (v) Movements (moving in a specific way) in which animate beings are involved as agents, inanimate entities as patients.

    (p.84) (i) Verb frames

    (j) Verb frames

    Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

    Curre…et quam primum haec risum veni…(Cael. Fam. 8.14.4); Himantopodes …quibus serpendo ingredi natura sit. (Plin. Nat. 5.46);…volat vapor ater ad auras. (Verg. A. 7.466);

  6. (vi) Activities in which two or more animate beings are voluntarily involved as agents and associatives (see § 4.38 and § 4.69).

    (k) Verb frames

    (l) Verb frames

    Supplement:

    Heri aliquot adulescentuli coiimus in Piraeo / in hunc diem ut de symbolis essemus. (Ter. Eu. 539–40);

  7. (vii) Verbs of existence (also in use as copular verbs—for more details see § 4.91).

    (m) Verb frames

    (n) Verb frames

    Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

    …mulieres / iam ab re divina credo apparebunt domi. (Pl. Poen. 617–18); Qui sunt, qui erunt quique fuerunt quique futuri sunt posthac, / solus ego omnibus antideo, facile miserrumus hominum ut vivam. (Pl. Per. 777–8);

4.10 Expansion of the number of arguments of one-place verbs

There are several ways of expanding the frame of a one-place verb with a second argument. This is often called the transitive use of intransitive verbs. It can be illustrated with two types of expansion, both of which are prevalent in poetry and in poetically inspired prose, but are not restricted to these types of text. In the first place, verbs may be used not according to their central or basic meaning, but in a way that plays upon certain components of that meaning. The verb fleo, for example, (p.85) meaning ‘to cry’, implies the production of sound and the expression of an emotion, and this it has in common with communication and emotion verbs. We therefore find it with an accusative and infinitive clause which is typical of communication and cognition verbs (see § 15.97), as in (a). Similarly, we find furo ‘to rage’, hence ‘to behave like a madman’, used as a cognition verb, again with an accusative and infinitive, as in (b). Sternuo ‘to sneeze’ involves the production of a sound and so Catullus uses it with approbationem ‘approval’ as its object, as in (c).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

At least some of the instances of the so-called adverbial accusative (see § 10.45) can be explained along these lines. An example of furo is (d). Infanda may be taken as: ‘in his rage he produced unspeakable utterances’ and not adverbially as ‘he manifested an unspeakable rage’ or ‘he raged in an unspeakable manner’.

(d) Verb frames

Supplement:

Stabat acerba fremens…(Verg. A. 12.398);…insanire putas sollemnia me…(Hor. Ep. 1.1.101);…vix credenda furentem…(Sil. 15.452);

Furthermore, verbs may be expanded with an argument because they are in some way associated with another straightforward (group of) two-place verb(s). For example, since tremo ‘to tremble’ may occur as a physiological symptom of emotion, poets first (and then Livy and others) use it with an object noun phrase in the accusative case, like timeo ‘to fear’. Examples are (e) and (f).

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

The examples above illustrate the expansion of the number of arguments on the basis of specific semantic features of the verb. Another productive way of expanding the (p.86) number of arguments similar to those above but with the verb used in its ‘normal’ meaning is the use of the so-called COGNATE object19 in the accusative case. As the term ‘cognate’ indicates, the meaning of the noun phrase is closely related to the meaning of the verb. It ‘externalises’ the meaning of the verb. Most of the verbs involved belong to controlled and non-terminative states of affairs. Examples are (g) and (h).

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

The term ‘cognate object’ is here used in a limited sense for what others sometimes call the figura etymologica within the category of the ‘inter­nal object’ (German: ‘Akku­sativ des In­halts’). The ‘internal’ object is often defined in the same way as the term ‘effected’ object is used in this Syntax (see § 4.20), but in reality it covers more.20

This use of the cognate object is frequent in Plautus and in poetically inspired texts but is certainly not restricted to these. Just as with many two-place verbs that govern an accusative object, the cognate constituent with these one-place verbs can be the subject in the passive. However, this is not a very frequent phenomenon. A good example of a passive construction is (i).

(i) Verb frames

Although formally, and judging from its behaviour under passivization, the accusative constituent looks like a normal object, it has distinctive semantic properties. The noun phrase does not refer to some real, existing or future, entity, but specifies in some way or other either the way an event takes place or the result produced by the action.

  • Often there is an attributive adjective or another type of attribute.21

  • The noun (phrase) has a more specific meaning than the meaning of the verb itself (e.g. Graecanicam Pyrricam saltare ‘to dance a Greek Pyrrhic (dance)’, cf. Apul. Met. 10.29.4). A good example of this is the noun servitutem in the expression servitutem servire. A specific way of servire is meant, as is shown by…aliud est servum esse, aliud servire…‘…to be a slave and to be in servitude are different…’ (Quint. Inst. 5.10.60).

  • (p.87) The cognate object contains information about the result of the action (e.g. miserabile certamen currere ‘to run a lamentable match’ cf. Stat. Theb. 3.116).

Sometimes the use of the cognate object is triggered by coherence between the situation described in the clause and the preceding context. In (i) above, haec pugna refers to the previous context, summarizing it as a ‘battle’. It is therefore topical information and a suitable candidate to be subject in its clause (hence pugno is in the passive). Another constellation in which constituents occur in the passive is the ablative absolute, as in (j). Depugnato by itself is impossible and needs ‘support’.

(j) Verb frames

Supplement:

Active:…dum vitam / vivas. (Pl. Per. 494–5); Pulmoneum edepol nimis velim vomitum vomas. (Pl. Rud. 511);…consimilem luserat / iam olim ille ludum…(Ter. Eu. 586–7);…cur non eosdem cursus…cucurrerunt? (Cic. Agr. 2.44);…prima leo, postrema draco, media ipsa, Chimaera / ore foras acrem flaret de corpore flammam? (Lucr. 5.905–6);…ut suum gaudium gauderemus. (Cael. Fam. 8.2.1);…multa basia basiare…(Catul. 7.9); Lynceus ipse meus seros insanit amores. (Prop. 2.34.25); Vides autem quam malam et noxiosam servitutem serviturus sit…(Sen. Dial. 7.4.4);…qui…pro servis servitutem servierunt…(Leg. pub. (Font. iur. p. 47) 5);

Passive:illa militia militatur…(Pl. Per. 232); Proelium factum depugnatumque pro castris…(Cato Hist. 82—NB: depugnatum is coordinated with factum);…pro qua mihi sunt magna bella pugnata…(Catul. 37.13);…mea sunt populo saltata poemata saepe…(Ov. Tr. 2.519);22

Whereas in the examples above the object constituents are not only semantically but also morphologically related to the governing verbs, there are also instances where there is only a semantic relation between the object and the governing verb. Examples are (k) and (l).

(k) Verb frames

(l) Verb frames

Supplement: Soleo hercle ego garrire nugas. (Pl. Aul. 830); Sed metuo ne sero veniam depugnato proelio. (Pl. Men. 989);…semper longam incomitata videtur / ire viam …(Verg. A. 4.467–8);…populus frequens / laetum theatris ter crepuit sonum. (Hor. Carm. 2.17.25–6);

Another viable means of expanding the number of arguments is by neuter pronouns. Examples are (m) and (n).

(p.88) (m) Verb frames

(n) Verb frames

Occasionally, one-place verbs are used with a second argument in parallel contexts, next to regular two-place verbs. A striking example is (n).

(o) Verb frames

Appendix: This means of ‘externalizing’ the meaning of the verb is also available with two-place verbs, when they are used as one-place verbs, that is, when their normal object is neither expressed nor can be understood from context (see § 4.21).

Another way of externalizing the meaning of the verb is the so-called cognate manner adjunct in the ablative (see § 10.44).

With a number of one-place verbs that refer to processes involving liquid material, an adjunct in the ablative may be added that specifies the type of liquid (commonly labelled ‘instrumental’). This is the case with e.g. fluo ‘to flow’ and mano ‘to flow’ (if combined with an ablative noun usually translated as a state ‘to be wet’), stillo ‘to drip’, and sudo ‘to sweat’ (also zero-place pluit ‘it is raining’—see § 4.90). It occurs especially in poetry, as in the Ennian example (p), but see also (q) from Cicero. (Mainly) poets also venture a two-place use of these verbs with the liquid as an accusative object (usually labelled ‘cognate’), as in (r) and (s), even in the passive, as in (t).

(p) Verb frames

(q) Verb frames

(r) Verb frames

(s) Verb frames

(t) Verb frames

(p.89) 4.11 One-place verbs that also occur in a two-place frame

(i) Many one-place verbs that denote a psychological or physiological state are also found with a second argument in the accusative, or occasionally in the passive with a nominative argument. With some of these verbs the accusative is more normal than with others.23 Two relatively common examples with doleo ‘to be grieved at’ and miror ‘to be surprised at’ are (a) and (b). Less common is (c) with the verb gaudeo ‘to rejoice’. With these verbs accusative and infinitive clauses and finite quod clauses are also common (see § 15.8).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

Supplement:

Egone illum non fleam? (Pl. Capt. 139); Quis somniavit aurum? (Pl. St. 666); Ergo hominis desperati et proditoris rei publicae casum lugebunt fortasse qui volent. (Cic. Sest. 33); Nemone igitur umquam alius ovum somniavit? (Cic. Div. 2.134);

The two-place frame is especially common when these verbs are used metaphorically. This is illustrated in (d)–(g) for esurio and sitio.

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

A number of verbs denoting an emotion or the manifestation of an emotion are also used with an ablative constituent indicating the cause of the emotion (the so-called (p.90) ablativus causae). Prepositional expressions (notably with de) are found with some of them as well. The most representative verbs are given in Table 4.1. One may hesitate whether the ablative constituent is an argument or a cause adjunct (see § 10.79) combined with a one-place frame. The latter position is taken in this Syntax. A few illustrations are given in (h)–(k).

Table 4.1 One-place emotion verbs that combine with an ablative constituent

Emotion

angor

‘to be distressed’

doleo

‘to grieve (at)’

maereo

‘to be sad’

delector

‘to be delighted’

gaudeo

‘to be glad’

laetor

‘to delight (in)’

Manifestation of emotion

ardeo

‘to rage’

flagro

‘to burn (with)’

furo

‘to rage’

gestio

‘to exult’

exsulto

‘to exult’

glorior

‘to glory (in)’

triumpho

‘to exult’

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

(k) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Filia quae non solum illo communi dolore muliebri in eius modi viri iniuriis angeretur …(Cic. Clu. 13);…cum poeticis multis verbis magis delecter quam utar, antiquis magis utar quam delecter. (Var. L. 5.9);…ut exsultare victoria nobilitatis videretur… (Cic. S. Rosc. 16);…incredibili quodam nostri homines dicendi studio flagraverunt. (Cic. de Orat. 1.14); Numquam illum ‘aspectum’ dicebat, quin mihi Telamo iratus furere luctu filii videretur. (Cic. de Orat. 2.193); Haec qui gaudent, gaudeant perpetuo suo semper bono. (Pl. Mos. 306);…quorum alter laetitia gestiat, alter dolore crucietur … (Cic. Fin. 2.14); Nemo enim maeret suo incommodo. (Cic. Tusc. 1.30);…ne triumviratu suo nimis superbiat Antonius paene histrioni comparatus…(Plin. Nat. 9.122); <At>que erupit e senatu triumphans gaudio…(Cic. Mur. 51);

Appendix: Emotion verbs are often expanded with a prepositional phrase with in indicating the area to which the emotion pertains (it is an abstract place adjunct).24 Examples are (l) and (m).

(p.91) (l) Verb frames

(m) Verb frames

The verb laboro ‘to suffer’ is usually mentioned in the same context, and indeed combinations with noun phrases in the ablative are common, as in (n) and (o). These expressions are rather cause adjuncts, as with the verb aegroto ‘to be ill’. The part of the body where the pain is felt may be specified with a prepositional phrase (in Cicero with the preposition ex), as in (p).

(n) Verb frames

(o) Verb frames

(p) Verb frames

(ii) Some verbs denoting the production of a smell, a taste, or a sound (oleo ‘to smell’, sapio ‘to taste’, sono ‘to sound’) have both a one-place frame, with the person or object producing the smell, etc. in the nominative, as in (q), and a two-place frame (‘to smell of’, etc.) with a second argument in the accusative case referring to the kind of smell, taste, or sound produced, as in (r). There are also metaphorical instances. This two-place frame is often dealt with in the same way as the cognate object, but one important difference is that the constituent occurring as the second argument in the two-place frame may also occur as the only argument in the one-place frame, as the comparison of (q) and (r) shows. The source of the smelling may also be expressed by a satellite in the ablative (rare), as in (s). Another difference between these two types of frame is that, whereas verbs whose second argument is a cognate object can be passivized, those discussed in this section cannot.

(q) Verb frames

(r) Verb frames

(p.92) (s) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Two-place: Murram olet (Pl. As. 928); Agedum odorare hanc quam ego habeo pallam. Quid olet? (Pl. Men. 166);…mulier recte olet, ubi nil olet. (Pl. Mos. 273);…magis laudari quod ceram quam quod crocum olere videatur. (Cic. de Orat. 3.99);…in odore agri, quem olebat…Jacob…(Ambr. Job 4.1.3);…multa…mella herbam eam sapiant. (Plin. Nat. 11.18);…nec vox hominem sonat. (Verg. A. 1.328);

One-place: Aurum huic olet. (Pl. Aul. 216—NB: status of the dative not clear25); Nihil est delectabilius odore domini, sic oleant omnes qui credunt. (August. Serm. 140.4, l. 18);…curamque adhibere ut praeolat mihi quod tu velis. (Pl. Mil. 41);…nec dubium quin fici ramulis glaciatus caseus iucundissime sapiat. (Col. 7.8.2);

Metaphorical:…homini, servitutem paternam redolenti…(V. Max. 6.2.8);

Appendix: Sono is also used with the meaning ‘to produce a sound’, ‘to utter’, as in Hor. Epod. 9.5 sonante mixtum tibiis carmen lyra. In this meaning it is a two-place verb. Examples of the so-called adverbial accusative (see § 10.45) like mortale sonans (Verg. A. 6.50) and pingue quiddam sonantibus atque peregrinum (Cic. Arch. 26) may belong here as well.

(iii) With verbs of motion several expression types in the accusative are used. One is a satellite indicating the distance covered (see § 10.23), another is the cognate object construction as in (t), a third one is a so-called ‘locative’ object, exemplified by (u).

(t) Verb frames

(u) Verb frames

The difference between the two is that the ‘locative object’ is interchangeable with a prepositional expression or compound (per viam currentem or percurrentem ‘along the road’) whereas this alternative does not exist for the cognate object. Like cognate objects, they rarely occur in passive constructions.

Supplement:

…itque reditque viam totiens. (Verg. A. 6.122);…sciat indociles currere lympha vias. (Prop. 1.2.12); Nempe abruptis turbata procellis / nocte natat caeca serus freta…(Verg. G. 3. 259–60);

(p.93) Passive:…quia Oceanus navigari non potest. (Sen. Suas. 1.1); Qui sustinet hamos / novit quae multo pisce natentur aquae. (Ov. Ars 1.48–9);…campus curritur…mare navigatur…(Quint. Inst. 1.4.28);…via curritur…(August. Serm. 159.1.1);

NB: autocausative passive (for the term, see § 5.19):…nunc Satyrum, nunc agrestem Cyclopa movetur. (Hor. Ep. 2.2.125);

(iv) With some verbal lexemes a one- and two-place frame go side by side in a particular semantic relationship. Moveo ‘to move’, for example, can be used of animate and inanimate entities in the meaning ‘to make movements’. As such, it is one-place and may be compared to verbs like tremo ‘to tremble’. An example is (v). The two-place frame, in its meaning ‘to create movement in someone or something’, behaves like quatio ‘to shake’ and is exemplified by the passives in (w) and (x).

(v) Verb frames

(w) Verb frames

(x) Verb frames

In the case of two-place moveo the first argument is an agent, voluntarily involved in an action, the second a patient undergoing that action. With one-place moveo, however, the argument is rather a patient involved in some (invol­untary) process. This use of moveo can be described as the ‘decausative’ counterpart of two-place moveo. More examples are given in § 5.30 (intransitivization). However, the second arguments of the two-place frame cannot always occur as the single argument of the one-place frame (and vice versa).

Some of the verbs involved, for example moveo, also occur in the autocausative passive construction (see § 5.19) and in the autocausative reflexive construction, as well as in the same meaning without the reflexive pronoun (see § 5.31).

4.12 One-place verbs with a clause as the subject

A number of the verbs listed in the beginning of this section are used with a clause or an infinitive as the subject. This phenomenon is often called ‘impersonal’, but the verbs also have, and sometimes more frequently, ‘personal’ constructions. Examples are apparet ‘it appears’, constat ‘it is plain’, dolet ‘it is a cause of grief’, latet ‘it is concealed’, liquet ‘it is clear’, patet ‘it is clear’, stat ‘it is fixed’.

A very common class of ‘impersonal’ verbs that have a clause or infinitive as the subject are verbs of happening like accidit, cadit, evenit, and fit ‘it comes about that’.

The various types of clauses are dealt with in Chapter 15.

4.13 Impersonal one-place verbs

(p.94) As is mentioned in § 4.8, the reason for calling the verbs to be discussed in this section ‘impersonal’ is that they are usually restricted to third person singular verb forms without a personal subject. They often have a subordinate clause (an accusative and infinitive clause or a finite clause of some form) as their subject.

4.14 The modal verbs licet and oportet

Typical examples of the one-place frame of licet ‘it is permitted’ are (a) and (b), with an accusative and infinitive and a finite subjunctive clause as the subject, respectively. With the same modal meaning licet is also used as a two-place verb, with an infinitive as the subject and a second argument that is involuntarily involved in the state as an experiencer (in the dative), as in (c). The experiencer (mihi) is coreferential with the agent of the infinitive dicere. Very rare are instances of two-place licet with a nominal subject, as in (d) (with an unspecified experiencer).26

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

The one-place modal verb oportet ‘it is proper’ is used with either an infinitive or with a clause as the subject. It is usually an accusative and infinitive, rarely a finite subjunctive clause (for a Late Latin ut clause see § 15.69). Nominal subjects are rare, but see (e) and (f). Unlike licet, oportet has no two-place frame with a dative experiencer.27

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(p.95) 4.15 ‘Impersonal’ est

From Early Latin onwards, the third person singular form of sum in its existential meaning is found with infinitives or clauses (accusative and infinitive or finite ut + subjunctive) as its subject, sometimes meaning ‘it is the case that’, more often ‘it is possible’, ‘it is allowed’. Although the number of early instances is very small, grammarians and editors seem to have been too eager to get rid of some of them.28 Its increased use in (post-)Augustan poetry and in ecclesiastical authors was probably stimulated by the existence of a parallel Greek expression. An early example is (a).

(a) Verb frames

Supplement:

Infinitive: Quid narrat? # Quid ille? Miserum se esse. # Miserum? Quem minu’ credere’st [crederes edd.] (Ter. Hau. 192); Est interdum praestare mercaturis rem quaerere…(Cato Agr. praef. 1);29 Inter duas filias regum quid mutet, inter Antigonam et Tulliam, est animadvertere. (Var. apud Gel. 18.12.9); Sed cum etiam nunc quid facturus Caesar sit magis <sit> opinari quam scire…(Balb. Opp. Att. 9.7A.1);…cernere erat…(Verg. A. 8. 676 —NB: Servius ad loc.: Graeca figura est);…quae verbo obiecta verbo negare sit [<satis> or <par> sit edd.] (Liv. 42.41.2); Est autem maxime id considerare Ravennae, quod…(Vitr. 2.9.11);…quantum dinoscere erat…(V. Max. 2.6.8); Est te, inquit, videre? (Petr. 67.5 (Fortunata speaking)); De nostris moribus bene sperare est…(Plin. Nat. 17.50); Nam nisi (sc. terra) in medio esset, aequales dies noctesque habere non posse deprehendere e<s>t…(Plin. Nat. 2.176); Non est fateri rerum natura largius mala an remedia genuerit. (Plin. Nat. 8.87); Aliter non est occidere et tergori parcere. (Plin. Nat. 8.135);…ut coniectare erat intentione vultus…(Tac. Ann. 16.34.1);…est videre…vasa…(Tac. Germ. 5.3); Est adeo invenire apud nobiles poetas huiuscemodi suavitatis multa…(Gel. 6.20.4); Per haec…floribus frui est…(Tert. De cor. 10); Pudet, sed aliter exprimere non est. (Tert. Val. 17.1); Ante est enim scire quibus rescribere habeam. (Cypr. Ep. 33.2);…per quas ubique vastitates multa ferarum nomina multasque eiusmodi saevitudinis facies erat videre…(Jul. Val. Res Gestae Alex. M. 3.17, 372–4); Vix est carere istis malis…(August. De gest. Pel. 18); At nunc videre est per eos omnes tractus violenta et rapacissima genera hominum…(Amm. 30.4.8; cf. 31.8.7); Erat videre permixtos rusticis servos haurire vel de expresso vel de sponte fluente mustum nec tamen ebrietate capi. (Macr. Sat. 7.7.14);

Accusative and infinitive: Hoc illum me mutare—# Confido fore. [various suggestions by edd.] (Pl. Capt. 171);…quae…recognosci est. (Tert. De cor. 8);

(p.96) ut: Si est ut velit redducere uxorem, licet. (Ter. Hec. 501; cf.: 558, 637; Manere adfinitatem hanc inter nos volo, / si ullo modo est ut possit. [723–4], 796; Ph. 925);…non erat ut fieri posset mirarier…(Lucr. 5.979); Namque si lex perite fuerit scripta, erit ut sine captione uterque ab utroque liberetur. (Vitr. 1.1.10); Sin autem (aedificia) inpedientur ab angustiis aut aliis necessitatibus, tunc erit ut ingenio et acumine de symmetriis detractiones aut adiectiones fiant, uti non dissimiles veris symmetriis perficiantur venustates. (Vitr. 6.3.11); See also § 15.28;

quod: Quod ultra mihi molesti sitis, non est. (Sen. Con. 10.pr.1);

The third person singular form of sum is also used in expressions of the type recte est ‘it is OK’ and sero est ‘it is late’, where no subject is present and the adverbs characterize ‘the situation’. Examples are (b)–(d).30 A dative beneficiary can be added, as in (b). (For est with an expression of distance, see § 4.84.)

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

Supplement:

Belle erit…(Petr. 46.2 (Echion speaking));…in libertate est ad patrem in patria <domo>. Bene est…(Pl. Capt. 699–700); Patria est ubicumque est bene. (Pac. trag. inc. 92); Fuit enim periucunde. (Cic. Att. 13.52.1); De Attica pergratum mihi fecisti quod curasti ut ante scirem recte esse quam non belle fuisse. (Cic. Att. 14.16.4); Sed tamen suaviter fuit…(Petr. 65.11 (Habinnas speaking));

With a dative beneficiary (in alphabetical order by adverb): Sed hoc mihi aegre est…(Pl. Capt. 701);…mi bene est et tibi male est. (Pl. Mos. 52);…ne qui deterius huic sit quam quoi pessume est. (Pl. Capt. 738); I hac mecum intro, ubi tibi sit lepide victibus, vino atque unguentis. (Pl. Bac. 1181); Animo male est. (Pl. Cur. 312); Numquam tam male est Siculis…(Cic. Ver. 4.95);…cum meliuscule tibi esset…(Cic. Fam. 16.5.1);

Hoc de genere nihil te nunc quidem moneo (sero est enim…) (Cic. Q.fr. 1.2.9);

Appendix: In Plautus and Terence impersonal est is used in combination with a prepositional phrase with absque ‘without’ in some form of conditional clause, as in (e).

(e) Verb frames

(p.97) 4.16 ‘Impersonal’ habet

Resembling the use of impersonal est in the preceding section is the use of the third person singular of habeo ‘to have’, as in (a).

(a) Verb frames

Supplement:

Bene habet, sic tene. (Sen. Con. 10.5.10); Bene habet, peractum est. (Sen. Oed. 998); Bene habet, inquam, prorsus nihil amplius optavi. (August. C. Acad. 3.5.12); Nam pro malis recte habebat. (Cic. Att. 12.14.3);

In Late Latin, the third person singular active forms of habeo ‘to have’ and facio ‘to do’ are used as ‘impersonal’ one-place verbs with an accusative argument. Examples are (b)–(e). In (b) librum elephantinum resembles the ‘sujet réel’ in French il y a un livre. Ex. (c) shows an extent of space argument (see § 4.84); (d) an extent of time argument.31

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

4.17 Two-place verbs

It is often difficult to ascertain the valency of a verb that seems at first sight to be two-place. In the first place, second arguments can be omitted if they can easily be inferred from the context or situation. This is discussed in more detail in § 9.16. Secondly, due to frequent use in a specific context, mention of the second argument may become superfluous. This phenomenon is particularly frequent in didactic texts but can occur (p.98) in any conventional setting. In addition to what is said about bibo in § 4.5, this may be illustrated by an example of the verb moveo ‘to move’ in its meaning ‘to move somebody or something from its original position to another position’.32 In (a), movi governs castra and is two-place, with a satellite indicating from where the camp was moved. In (b), castra is not expressed. In military contexts like this, when the commander is the subject, as Pompeius is, castra ‘camp’ is easily understood as the entity to be moved. This use of moveo, which we might call an instance of CONVENTIONAL REDUCTION of arguments, has to be distinguished from one-place moveo in its meaning ‘to make movements’, as in (c) (see § 4.11), and from its one-place use meaning ‘to depart’ (see § 5.31).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

Conventional reduction of arguments is quite common. Other instances are mereo (sc. stipendia) ‘to draw pay as a soldier’, appello (sc. navem) ‘to bring to shore’, solvo (sc. navem) ‘to set sail’, and teneo (sc. cursum) ‘to continue on a course’. Latin grammars often use the term ELLIPSIS for such cases.33

Supplement:

adpellit ad eum locum qui appellatur Anquillaria. (Caes. Civ. 2.23.1); Quodsi <e> portu solventibus ei qui iam in portum invehuntur praecipere…solent…tempestatum rationem…(Cic. Mur. 4); Tum primum equis suis merere equites coeperunt. (Liv. 5.7.13);

Appendix: Instances of conventionally reduced valency are often disputed, as in (d) and (e). In (d), the manuscripts vary. In (e), movere se is found in early editions. Madvig proposed to read moveri.34

(d) Verb frames

(p.99) (e) Verb frames

The verb appello, which lost an argument (navem) through institutionalization, is at a later stage found with that noun, but now as a satellite, as in (f).

(f) Verb frames

4.18 Personal two-place verbs

The prototypical two-place frame refers to an action, in which a (typically human) agent and a (human or non-human) patient are involved (see § 2.9). This type is very well represented in our corpus, much of which deals with the actions of human beings.35 However, there are many other semantic frames of arguments, more easily found outside the literary works that form the basis of older grammars. Table 4.2 and the following quotations serve as illustrations of the many frames that are possible (for definitions of semantic functions, see § 2.12). It is impossible to give a representative classification of all the frames found. Attention will be given to a few more remarkable cases.

Table 4.2 Frames of semantic functions with two-place verbs

2nd arg. →

↓ 1st arg.

Patient

Experiencer

Recipient

Associative

Location

Agent

vulnero

homo/multos

pugno

nos/cum legionibus

appropinquo

hostes/urbi

Cause

occido

fulmen/ hominem

placeo

cena/mihi

contingo

malum/mihi

confluo

Panticapes/ cum Borysthene

Patient

habeo

Priamus/filios

sum

nymphae/mihi

Experiencer

cognosco

hic/nos

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(p.100) (c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

4.19 The form of second arguments

As is apparent in the examples given to illustrate Table 4.2, the second arguments with two-place verbs exhibit a variety of forms and this will be shown in more detail in the following sections. As far as case marking is concerned, the following patterns occur with active (including deponent) two-place verbs. By far the majority of active two-place verbs govern a second argument in the accusative case (see § 12.2).

Table 4.3 Case patterns of personal two-place verbs

nom. N1

V

acc. N2

dat. N2

abl. N2

gen. N2

prep. N2

‘nom.’, ‘acc.’, etc. = nominative, accusative, etc.; ‘N’ = noun (phrase); N1 = first argument; N2 = second argument; ‘V’ = verb; ‘prep.’ = preposition

4.20 Personal two-place verbs governing an accusative object

(p.101) With a large number of accusative-governing verbs, the second argument is a pre-existing entity that is affected by the action in which it is involved (it is, in traditional terms, an AFFECTED object). An example is brassica in (a), implied with the verb coquo ‘to cook’. With the same verb, the second argument can be the result or the product of the action of the verb (it is, in traditional terms, an EFFECTED or ‘resultant’ object), as in (b). A less concrete parallel with both types of objects is (c). Only when governing an affected or effected object in the accusative can the verb be used in the passive. A few illustrations of objects that are called effected are given in the Supplement. In some cases, their status is not immediately obvious.36 Objects of two-place verbs that are in a case other than the accusative are never effected.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Nec mirum quod divina natura dedit agros, ars humana aedificavit urbes…(Var. R. 3.1.4); Eo nunc commenta est dolum. (Pl. Truc. 85);…lignis congestis maximam in medio foro pyram construxerat…(B. Afr. 91.2); Eundem mira quaedam excogitare genera furandi. (Cic. Ver. 2.134); Illi impediendae reliquae munitionis causa hora circiter VIIII signo dato legiones educunt aciemque sub castris instruunt. (Caes. Civ. 1.82.1);…cum eadem lucerna hanc epistulam scripsissem qua inflammaram tuam…(Cic. Att. 8.2.4);…ab illo tempore nullum locum praetermisit in quo non strueret insidias aliquas…(Cic. Clu. 190);

However, the accusative objects of two-place verbs need not be either affected or effected. Especially in the case of inanimate subjects and objects and of abstract entities, such distinctions as ‘affected’ and ‘effected’ are irrelevant, as in (d) and (e).

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(p.102) 4.21 Cognate accusative arguments with two-place verbs

Cognate objects (which are allowed with most one-place verbs—see § 4.10) also occur with two-place verbs. This is the case in (a) and (b). Deponent verbs allow cognate objects as well, as in (c).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

Supplement:

…queror haud facilesquestus…(Stat. Silv. 4.8.32);…ex stipulatione quam extraneus qui dotem dederit stipulatus fuerit…(Pap. Just. dig. 24.3.42.3);…ulciscar ultionem tuam…(Vulg. Jerem. 51.36);

4.22 Two-place compound verbs of motion governing the accusative

With many two-place compound verbs of motion the location involved is marked by the accusative case. Most of these accusative-governing compounds are formed with a preverb related to a preposition that governs the accusative, but compounds with other preverbs may govern the accusative as well, as exirem in (c). Passivization is possible, as in (d) and (e).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(p.103) 4.23 Two-place verbs governing a non-accusative object

What two-place verbs governing a non-accusative object have in common is that the object cannot become the subject in a passive construction. This is obvious in the case of deponent verbs such as utor ‘to use’, but this restriction also holds for formally active verbs like noceo ‘to harm’, with very few exceptions. The form of passivization that is allowed is the impersonal one with the case form of the object remaining intact, as is shown in (a) and (b), where ponti in the active and iis in the passive are both datives. The occasional personal passive forms are discussed in § 5.6.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

The active verbs are rarely combined with a cognate object (in the accusative!). One instance with the verb servio is (c). Servitutem is modified by the adjectives privatam and publicam. Another example is (d), where noceo is unspecified. Note that noxam is not modified by an attribute.

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames37

Supplement:

Si servus furtum faxit noxiamve noxit…(Lex XII.2);

Whether the use of a specific case with specific verbs is semantically determined is a question that has received much attention. Although there are certain lexical classes that have a particular case form for their second argument, attempts to generally explain the use of a non-accusative have not been very satisfactory (see §§ 12.6–12.9).

(p.104) 4.24 Two-place verbs governing a dative object

The dative is regularly used for arguments of two-place verbs belonging to the following four semantic classes:

  1. (i) verbs of helping, caring, and their opposites

  2. (ii) verbs of pleasing, flattering, and threatening

  3. (iii) verbs of ruling, obeying, and serving

  4. (iv) verbs of approaching and befalling.

A few verbs belonging to these classes are given in Table 4.4. Some of these verbs have more than one frame (impero, for example, also has a three-place frame in its meaning ‘to order’, as does minor in its meaning ‘to hold out the menace of’) and/or more than one case frame (ausculto, for example, governs an accusative in its meaning ‘to listen to’). However, some verbs are found both with the dative and the accusative, without a clear difference in meaning (curo, for example, in its meaning ‘to care about’, in which case a prepositional construction with de exists as well). Finally, there are diachronic developments in frames and case patterns (noceo, for example, is found in the personal passive in Vitruvius and later, which suggests the existence of an accusative object—see § 5.6). Instances of these verbs can be found in all periods of Latin and in every type of text.

Other verbs belonging to the same semantic classes do not govern a dative at all or only exceptionally. The best example is iuvo, which governs the accusative

Table 4.4 Classes of two-place verbs governing a dative

helping

auxilior

‘to give help’

noceo

‘to injure’

consulo

‘to look after’

adversor

‘to oppose’

resisto

‘to make a stand (against)’

cedo

‘to yield to’

ignosco

‘to forgive’

expedit

‘it is useful’

pleasing

placeo

‘to be pleasing (to)’

blandior

‘to flatter’

faveo

‘to show favour to’

irascor

‘to become angry (at)’

minor

‘to threaten’

fido

‘to trust (in)’

diffido

‘to have no trust (in)’

credo

‘to believe (someone)’

ruling

impero

‘to rule over’

pareo

‘to obey’

oboedio

‘to obey, to submit to’

morem gero

‘to gratify (someone)’

servio

‘to serve’

ausculto

‘to obey’

audio

‘to obey’

(Apul.)

approach-ing

occurro

‘to meet’

obviam eo

‘I face up (to)’

appropinquo

‘to approach’

praesto sum

‘to be available (to)’

coeo

‘to come together’

(Hor.)

accido

‘to happen to’

(p.105) both in its meaning ‘to help’ and in its meaning ‘to delight’.38 See below for a few exceptions.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

Occasional intrusion of the dative with verbs that normally govern an accusative can be illustrated by the following examples.

(k) Verb frames

(l) Verb frames

(p.106) (m) Verb frames

(n) Verb frames

4.25 The use of the dative with two-place compounds

Among the verbs that govern a dative for their second argument are a large number of compounds, especially those formed with the preverb ob-, but also those formed with ad-, ante-, in-, inter-, sub-, super-, and re-. The compounds that have a preverb corresponding to a preposition are often also found with a prepositional object that is regularly, but not exclusively, related to that preverb. The prepositional expression is more common when physical motion is at stake; however, in non-local meanings either expression can be used, with varying frequency. In poetry and in poeticizing prose the dative is preferred. Examples (a)–(d) of the verb accedo illustrate the range of variation. Some of these compounds are also found with the accusative, as in (e). For a discussion of why the dative is used with these verbs, see § 12.7.39

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by compound):

Nam si hanc rem illa sequitur, hanc autem non sequitur, aut si huic rei illa antecedit, huic non antecedit, aut si huic rei repugnat, illi non repugnat…(Cic. Top. 88); Instatis mihi cotidie de Albucio. (Sen. Con. 7 praef. 1); Ergo his laboriosis exercitationibus et dolor intercurrit non numquam…(Cic. Tusc. 2.36); Quae ne ira obstaret bono publico…(Liv. 9.38.11); CA(S)IUS LONGINU(S)·QUEI·CATILINAE / SUFRAGATUR (p.107) (CIL VI.8.3.40897 (Rome, 63/2 BC)); Postquam satis diu adversarios ab se ad dimicandum invitatos supersedere pugnae animadvertit…(B. Afr. 75.2);

Typically poetic instances:…fortis equus visae semper adhinnit equae. (Ov. Rem. 634); Aspirat primo Fortuna labori. (Verg. A. 2.385);…<sorsum> sapor insinuatur / sensibus. (Lucr. 2.684);

Dative objects are also found with compounds formed with the preverbs ex- and de-, examples of which are (f) and (g). With such compounds, the bare ablative or various prepositional expressions are found as well (see § 4.83). The dative in (g) is a poetic extension by Ovid instead of the ablative. Ex. (h) is morphologically ambiguous. The dative with compounds with the preverb co-/com-/con- is relatively less common than prepositional expressions with cum (see § 4.38).

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

4.26 The verb sum in the so-called possessive construction

The verb sum is found in a number of frames. One of the two-place frames, in which sum means ‘to be worth’, is discussed in § 4.32. For a survey of other uses see §§ 4.91–4.95. A much discussed two-place frame is illustrated by (a)–(d).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

Such constructions with a dative noun phrase, a form of sum, and a subject noun phrase are usually called POSSESSIVE DATIVE (dativus possessivus) constructions. The notion of possession, however, is problematic: the dative NP is most often an animate being and the subject an abstract entity, but we cannot be sure that these are real semantic restrictions on the construction. Furthermore, many of the subject (p.108) constituents cannot really be said to be in the possession of the dative constituent. The semantic function of the dative constituent is much disputed. If it is taken as an argument (that is the position taken in this Syntax), it is either a recipient or an experiencer. As for the function of the verb sum, that is not clear either: in these constructions sum is definitely neither a copula nor an auxiliary. Some scholars take it as the existential use of sum (on which see § 4.94) and regard the dative as an adjunct (for example, a beneficiary adjunct).40 We are on more solid ground when it comes to the information structure: pragmatically, the dative NP is usually the topic and the subject constituent the focus of the clause. As a corollary, the dative constituent is usually definite—often a personal pronoun—and the subject constituent is most often indefinite.

For the focal function of the subject in this construction, see already Priscian 18.11 (III.213.16–23K): Virgilius in VII (sc. 268): ‘Est mihi nata viro gentis quam iungere nostrae’ pro ‘possideo natam’. Sed magis dativo quasi ad ignorantes utimur, ut in supra dicto versu. Nam ad scientes esse natam, nomen autem proprium ignorantes, dixisset ‘mea’ vel ‘mei nata Lavinia est’, subdistinctione posita post ‘natam’. Contra autem nomine quidem cognito, ignorata vero cuius esset nata, dixisset ‘Lavinia mea nata est’, post ‘Laviniam’ subdistinguendo…(‘Virgil in book 7: ‘I have a daughter; to marry her to a man of our race…’ (est mihi nata) is for ‘I possess a daughter’. But we use the dative more to those who are in ignorance, as in the verse cited above. To those who know that there is a daughter but do not know her name he would have said ‘My daughter [mea or mei]—she is Lavinia’, with a break after nata. But in contradistinction, if her name were known but if it were not known whose daughter she was, he would have said, ‘Lavinia—she is MY daughter’ with a break after Lavinia.’)41

The possessive dative construction is often equated with the construction of habeo ‘to have’ or possideo ‘to possess’ with an object constituent, but the pragmatic and semantic characteristics do not fully overlap with those mentioned above. As to the relative frequency of the possessive dative construction and the habeo + object construction, the information one finds in the literature varies. This is partly due to choices of corpus, partly to the definition of the construction. Although in one publication the possessive dative is described as decreasing after the Classical period, it seems to be quite common in Pliny the Elder.42 The possessive dative is also often (p.109) considered interchangeable with the so-called possessive genitive, but this is certainly wrong (see § 9.30).

The use of the dative with the verb sum can be compared to its use with the antonymic compounds absum ‘to be lacking’ and desum ‘to be wanting’, as in (e) and (f); and to its use with verbs that refer to something coming into someone’s possession, like contingo ‘to fall to one’s lot’ and evenio ‘to fall by lot (to)’, as in (g). Alongside these two-place verbs there are three-place verbs of giving and taking away that also govern a dative recipient.

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

Supplement:

(a) Regular instances: Pol si est animus aequos tibi, sat habes qui bene vitam colas. (Pl. Aul. 187); Quid tibi mecum est commerci, senex? (Pl. Aul. 631); Paullisper, Lyde, est lubido homini suo animo opsequi. (Pl. Bac. 416); Mihin’ si umquam filius erit, ne ille facili me utetur patre. (Ter. Hau. 217);…<ad> Admetum, Molossum regem, cum quo ei hospitium erat, confugit. (Nep. Them. 8.3); Belli gerendi ius Antiocho ne esto cum illis qui insulas colunt, neve in Europam transeundi. (Liv. 38.38.3); Iter est iis per hospitia certa. (Plin. Nat. 10.65); Leoni tantum ex feris clementia in supplices. (Plin. Nat. 8.48); Gignit tota vita, quae est ei ad tricensimum annum. (Plin. Nat. 8.168—if it belongs here.);

(b) Less frequent instances:

Non-abstract subject: Ecquid in mentem est tibi / patrem tibi esse? (Pl. Bac. 161–2); Sed illi patruo huius qui vivit senex / Carthaginiensi duae fuere filiae; / altera quinquennis, altera quadrimula. (Pl. Poen. 83–5);…est ager sub urbe hic nobis: eum dabo / dotem sorori. (Pl. Trin. 508–9); Non hercle <ego omnino> occidi, sunt mi etiam fundi et aedes. (Pl. Truc. 174); Samia mihi mater fuit. Ea habitabat Rhodi. (Ter. Eu. 106); Erant illi compti capilli et madentes cincinnorum fimbriae et fluentes purpurissataeque buccae dignae Capua, sed illa vetere. (Cic. Pis. 25); Sunt mihi bis septem praestanti corpore Nymphae…(Verg. A. 1.71); Est mihi nata viro gentis quam iungere nostrae / non patrio ex adyto sortes, non plurima caelo / monstra sinunt. (Verg. A. 7.268–70);

Inanimate dative constituent: Quid est enim iam non modo pudori, probitati, virtuti, rectis studiis, bonis artibus sed omnino libertati ac saluti loci? (Cic. Fam. 5.16.4); Tum neque nomen erat neque honos aut gloria monti. (Verg. A. 12.135); Praeterea quasdam proprietates quibusdam locis esse…(Plin. Nat. 2.153); Duo sunt montes iuxta flumen Indum: alteri natura ut ferrum omne teneat, alteri ut respuat…(Plin. Nat. 2. 211); Tergori tanta duritia ut thoraces ex eo faciant. (Plin. Nat. 8.124);

Definite subject: Sunt tibi regna patris Dauni, sunt oppida capta/ multa manu…(Verg. A. 12.22–3);

(p.110) Finally, the dative is also used in more or less the same way with a number of copular verbs discussed in § 4.97. Examples are (h) and (i). In addition, these verbs are used with an existential meaning and some of them also as impersonal verbs of happening (see § 4.12).

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

4.27 The verb libet governing a dative argument

The most common use of libet ‘it pleases’ is with an infinitive or a clause as the subject and an experiencer argument in the dative. Neuter pronouns and adjectives are found as subject as well. Examples are (a)–(d). In Late Latin nouns are used as subject and the accusative is used for the second argument, following the frame that is normal with iuvat and delectat.43

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

4.28 Two-place verbs governing an ablative object

4.29 Two-place verbs of abundance and lacking governing an ablative object

With two-place verbs of abundance (used as an inclusive term for literal and figurative uses), the second argument is regularly expressed in the ablative (the so-called ablativus copiae), rarely in the genitive. The same goes for their antonyms, verbs of lacking, again with the genitive found as well (see below). The most frequent verbs can be found in Table 4.5.

This use of the ablative is consistent with its use with three-place verbs of the same meaning class (see § 4.53) and with adjectives of the same meaning class (see § 4.101). The use of the ablative with verbs of abundance is productive and is extended in poetry and in later prose to other verbs such as helluor ‘to spend immoderately’, (p.111)

Table 4.5 Verbs of abundance and lacking governing an ablative object

abundance

abundo

‘to be rich (in)’

redundo

‘to abound (in)’

affluo

‘to abound (in)’

circumfluo

‘to be abundantly supplied with’

floreo

‘to blossom’

niteo

‘to be bright (with)’

valeo

‘to be superior (in)’

vigeo

‘to excel (in)’

lacking

egeo

‘to need, to lack’

indigeo

‘to need, to lack’

careo

‘to lack’

luxurior ‘to live immoderately’, scateo/scato ‘to gush’, and gemmo ‘to put out buds’. Regular examples are (a)–(d).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Itaque ille noster amicus, insolens infamiae, semper in laude versatus, circumfluens gloria, deformatus corpore, fractus animo quo se conferat nescit. (Cic. Att. 2.21.3);…QUEM P/RIMA·AETATE·FLORENT/EM ·MORS·DIRA·SUBRIP/UIT (CIL XII.3559.3–6 (Nîmes, AD III)); Scilicet arte madent simulacra et docta vagantur, / nocturno facere ut possint in tempore ludos. (Lucr. 4.792–3);…(Capua) optimorum civium mihique amicissimorum multitudine redundat. (Cic. Pis. 25);…si vino scatat…(Pl. Aul. 558); Caelum caligine stat. (Sis. hist. 130);

Occasional genitives: In populo scelus est et abundant cuncta furoris. (Man. 2.600); Ita ad satiatem terra ferarum / nunc etiam scatit…(Lucr. 5.39–40);

Examples of verbs of lacking are (e)–(g).44 With egeo and indigeo the genitive is regular before Cicero (who prefers the ablative, certainly with egeo) and it is also used in later authors. The genitive is very rare with careo. Occasional accusative alternatives (other than neuter pronouns) are found mostly in Late Latin.

(p.112) (e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

…quia praemature vita careo. (Pl. Mos. 500); (sc. Tullia) Spernere sororem, quod virum

nacta muliebri cessaret audacia. (Liv. 1.46.6—NB: rare); C. Macer auctoritate semper eguit…(Cic. Brut. 238);…milites iis rebus indigebant quae ad oppugnationem castrorum erant usui. (Caes. Civ. 2.35.4);

Genitives:…praeter quam tui carendum quod erat. (Ter. Hau. 400); Saltem, tute si pudoris egeas, sumas mutuom. (Pl. Am. 819);…si quis…commodis omnibus abundabit, si virtutis <et artium>…egebit…(Rhet. Her. 4.60); Suarum opum nos volunt esse indigentis. (Pl. Cist. 28);

Accusatives: Tandem non ego illam caream, si sit opu’, vel totum triduom? (Ter. Eu. 223); Dives a divo qui ut deus ni[c]hil indigere videtur. (Var. L. 5.92);

4.30 The use of the ablative with fido (and its compounds) and nitor

The verb fido ‘to have confidence in’ and its compounds regularly have a dative object, especially when referring to an animate being (see § 4.24). However, they are also found with an ablative object denoting the source of the confidence (a so-called ablativus causae), which is also regular with fretus ‘relying on’. In Late Latin, on the other hand, prepositional expressions become regular. Nitor ‘to rely on’ is also normally found with an ablative object (but also with a prepositional object with in), and so are sto ‘to stand by’ and a few other verbs with more or less the same meaning. Examples are (a)–(d).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(p.113) (d) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Ab iis qui maxime P. Clodi morte adquierunt. (Cic. Mil. 102);…Manlius animo magis quam arte confisus scuto scutum percussit…(Quad. hist. 10b); T. Didius, paucitate suorum (v.l. paucitati) diffidens…aptari iussit milites ad pugnam… (Fron. Str. 1.8.5); Quod eis respondi, ea omnes stant sententia. (Pl. Cur. 250);

4.31 Two-place verbs of eminence or superiority governing an ablative object

With the verb excello ‘to surpass’, ‘to excel’, that in which one excels is expressed in the ablative, just as with three-place verbs of the same meaning class (see § 4.53). The verb emineo ‘to be pre-eminent’, ‘to excel’, is also occasionally found with an ablative argument. Examples are (a) and (b).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

4.32 Two-place verbs of costing or being worth that govern a price or value argument (usually in the ablative)

With a number of two-place verbs of costing, such as consto and sto ‘to cost’, the constituent that denotes the price or value is regularly expressed in the ablative case (the so-called ablativus pretii). Ablative price or value arguments are also used with the verbs sum (‘to be worth’, occasionally ‘to cost’) and valeo ‘to be worth’. The price or value argument may be a noun, as in (a) and (b), or a substantival ablative neuter form of an adjective of size such as magno ‘much’ and parvo ‘little’, as in (c) and (d). Instead of the ablative, the genitive is used with the verb sum, as it is with value objects with three-place verbs (see § 4.66).45 The genitive is also common with the words tanti (‘so much’) and quanti (‘how much’, ‘as much as’) and pluris (‘more’) and minoris (‘less’), as in (e). The same distribution of the use of the cases can be observed in adjuncts of price (see § 10.57 and § 10.59). For valeo, see also the Appendix.

(a) Verb frames

(p.114) (b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Ablative:…si HS VI milibus D tibi constarent ea…(Cic. Ver. 4.28);…Caesar…edocet, quanto detrimento et quot virorum fortium morte necesse sit constare victoriam. (Caes. Gal. 7.19.4);…QUAE·MIHI·CONSTI/TERUNTHS·CIRCITER·MILLIENS (Aug. Anc. 21); Cum dixisset Sabinus centenis milibus sibi constare singulos servos, ‘minoris’ inquit ‘totidem scrinia emisses’. (Sen. Ep. 27.7); Magnificatur et alia turris…, quam constitisse DCCC talentis tradunt…(Plin. Nat. 36.83);…oportet aliquo in loco Siciliae praetore Verre ternis denariis tritici modium fuisse. (Cic. Ver. 3.193);…neque ulla est / aut magno aut parvo leti fuga. (Hor. S. 2.6.94–5); Periclum vitae meae tuo stat periculo. (Pl. Capt. 740); Magno illi ea cunctatio stetit. (Liv. 2.36.4); Utrique vindicta libertatis morte stetit. (Vell. 2.64.3); Magno mihi seu ratio haec seu facilitas stetit, sed fuit tanti. (Plin. Ep. 8.2.8);

Genitive: Quam ut tantam faciamus quantam in Tusculano fecimus, prope dimidio minoris constabit isto loco. (Cic. Att. 13.29.1); Pluris est oculatus testis unus quam auriti decem. (Pl. Truc. 489); Scio enim eius ordinis auctoritatem semper apud te magni fuisse. (Cic. Fam. 13.72.2); Tanti non fuit Arsacen capere et Seleuceam expugnare ut earum rerum quae hic gestae sunt spectaculo careres. (Cael. Fam. 8.14.1); Minoris quam muscae sumus, <muscae> tamen aliquam virtutem habent, nos non pluris sumus quam bullae. (Petr. 42.4 (Seleucus speaking)); (hominem) pretioeo aestimandum, quanti fuit priusquam…(Ulp. dig. 9.2.23.3); Sed si res minoris valet quam comparata est…(Ulp. dig. 5.3.25.1);

Exceptional ablatives: Inpunitatem, aeternitatem quanto constare vultis? (Tert. Nat. 1.7.34); Heu quanto regnis nox stetit una tuis! (Ov. Fast. 2.812); Si mancipium reliquissem, mancipium deberes, nec diceres mihi: ‘accipe quanto istud est’. (Quint. Decl. 332.8);…quanto valere potest tanto aestimabitur. (Vulg. Levit. 27.17);

Appendix: The verb valeo ‘to be worth’ is exceptional in that it regularly governs an accusative, for example in Varro, in (f), who also has sum once with the accusative (L. 5.182). It is rarely found with an ablative from Ulpian onwards (ex. (d) above).

(f) Verb frames

(p.115) 4.33 The use of the ablative with fruor, fungor, potior, utor, and vescor

In the preceding sections, the ablative is more or less systematically used with verbs belonging to certain semantic classes. The verbs (and a few compounds and related expressions) in this section do not constitute one semantic class.46 What they have in common is that they are also found with the accusative (in varying degrees) and also with the genitive (especially potior). They are also used in the gerundive (see § 5.39).

Fruor ‘to enjoy’ is regularly found with the ablative, as in (a) (with an early attestation of the accusative in Cato).47 Fungor ‘to perform’ is found with the accusative in Early Latin, as in (b). The earliest undisputed attestation of the ablative is (c). While the ablative is preferred in Classical Latin, the accusative continued to be used in later periods alongside it. Potior ‘to obtain’48 is found with the ablative, the accusative, and the genitive, as in (d)–(f), respectively, from Early Latin onwards. From Cicero onwards, the ablative is the dominant case form, but the genitive persists, especially in the expression potior rerum ‘to seize power’. With utor ‘to use’, the ablative is dominant throughout Latinity, as in (g), although instances with the accusative are found from Early Latin onwards, as in (h). With vescor ‘to enjoy’, ‘to feed on’, the ablative is the regular case, as in (i), but isolated accusatives are found from Accius onwards, as in (j).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(p.116) (h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

Appendix: On the analogy of potiri rerum Tacitus has rerum adeptus est (Tac. Ann. 3.55.1). Greek influence is likely in the case of Horace in (k).49

The impersonal expressions usus est and opus est are found with the ablative on the analogy of utor. An example is (l).

(k) Verb frames

(l) Verb frames

4.34 Two-place verbs governing a genitive object

4.35 Two-place emotion verbs governing a cause argument in the genitive

With two-place emotion verbs, the experiencer of the emotion is usually expressed as the subject (in the nominative). With a number of verbs the cause or source of the emotion is in the genitive.50 This use of the genitive corresponds to its use with the impersonal two-place emotion verbs where the experiencer is usually in the accusative and the cause in the genitive (see § 4.48). The verbs governing a genitive can be found in Table 4.6.

Table 4.6 Two-place emotion verbs governing a genitive object

cupio

‘to long for’

miseresco

‘to have compassion (for)’

fastidio

‘to scorn’

vereor

‘to be in awe of’

misereor

‘to have pity (on)’

misereo (rare)

‘to have pity (on)’

With vereor, the genitive is less common than the accusative; with cupio (cf. cupidus + gen. in § 4.102) and fastidio it is almost confined to Early Latin, but it is regular with the other verbs given above. Examples are (a)–(d). The genitive is rarely found with (p.117) other two-place emotion verbs, such as gaudeo ‘to rejoice at’. In Late Latin alternative expressions occur: for example, expressions with the accusative, especially in ecclesiastical texts. (For vereor + dative ‘to be worried about’ see § 4.46.)

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Pol, quamquam domi cupio, opperiar…(Pl. Trin. 842);…verae beatitudinis…esurit et sitit. (Apul. Socr. 22, p. 172); Mein’ (cj. Lipsius) fastidis, propudiose? (Pl. St. 334);…ipse sui miseret. (Lucr. 3.881); Miseremini familiae, iudices, miseremini fortissimi patris, miseremini filii. (Cic. Flac. 106);…saepe miseritus sum generis humani…(Sen. Ep. 108.13); Viduae non miserebuntur neque orphanis benefacient. (Vulg. Bar. 6.37);…O superi, /…Arcadii…miserescite regis / et patrias audite preces. (Verg. A. 8.572–4);…ne tui quidem testimoni…veritus superbum se praebuit…(Cic. Att. 8.4.1); ‘Vereor’, inquam, ‘ignotae mihi feminae’…(Apul. Met. 2.2.7);

Alternative case: acc.: Quid fuit boni (sc. dei) mala misereri…(Ruf. Adamant. 2.6); dat.: Cui Venus postea miserta est…(Hyg. Fab. 58.3);

Exceptional other verbs: In amore suave est summo summaque inopia / parentem habere avarum inlepidum, in liberos / difficilem, qui te nec amet nec studeat tui. (Caecil. Com. 199–201); Neque ille sepositi ciceris nec longae invidit avenae…(Hor. S. 2.6.83–4);51 Voti [-o cj.] gaudeo. (Apul. Met. 1.24.7—unless taken as a Graecism);

4.36 Verbs of remembering and forgetting that govern a genitive or an accusative object

A number of verbs of remembering and forgetting occur with a genitive or an accusative object. These verbs are given in Table 4.7. The expression mihi venit in mentem is used either as an impersonal expression, with the entity remembered or forgotten expressed in the genitive, or as a personal one. The latter construction is normal if that entity is a neuter pronoun or adjective, but nouns can be used as well. The verbs memini and recordor are used occasionally with the preposition de.

(p.118)

Table 4.7 Verbs of remembering and forgetting governing a genitive object

memini

‘to remember’

obliviscor

‘to forget’

commemini

‘to remember’

reminiscor

‘to remember’

recordor

‘to call to mind’

Regular examples with a genitive are (a)–(c).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

As for the variation in case mentioned above, there are both semantic and diachronic tendencies. The accusative is more frequent with inanimate entities, as in (d). Neuter forms of pronouns and adjectives are also in the accusative, as is often the case with these categories. An example is (e). However, the genitive increases in frequency and is predominant from the Augustan authors onward.52 The use of the genitive correponds to its use with the adjective memor ‘mindful’ and its antonym immemor (see § 4.102). The second argument may also be a clause (a prolative infinitive, an accusative and infinitive, or—with memini—an ut clause).

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Some scholars assume a difference in meaning between the genitive and accusative expressions. The latter is generally regarded as more lively. This assumption is hard to prove.

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Genitive:

Animate beings: Faciam ut mei memineris, dum vitam / vivas. (Pl. Per. 494–5);…vivorum memini, nec tamen Epicuri licet oblivisci…(Cic. Fin. 5.3); Adhuc meminimus Homeri. (Tert. Nat. 1.10.38);

Inanimate entities: Satin’ ut meminit libertatis? (Pl. Per. 658); Ipse certe agnoscet et cum aliquo dolore flagitiorum suorum recordabitur. (Cic. Pis. 12); Iubes me bona cogitare, oblivisci malorum. (Cic. Tusc. 3.35);

(p.119) Accusative:

Animate beings: Cinnam memini. Vidi Sullam. (Cic. Phil. 5.17);…cur neminem se retro meminit Epicurus…(Tert. An. 31.6); An ego Ulixem obliscar umquam aut quemquam praeponi velim? (Acc. trag. 488);

Inanimate entities: Cum recordor eius ferocem et torvam confidentiam…(Pac. trag. 36); Chaline, non sum oblitus officium meum. (Pl. Cas. 104); Obliviscor iam iniurias tuas…(Cic. Cael. 50); Pronouns and adjectives:quod te diligentissime percipere et meminisse volam…(Cic. Fam. 11.7.2); Haecin te esse oblitum in ludo qui fuisti tam diu. (Pl. As. 226);

4.37 Two-place verbs governing a prepositional object

It is an impossible task to give a systematic classification of prepositional phrases. Two more or less coherent classes of verbs that govern a prepositional object are treated in this section. A third section with some illustrations follows in alphabetical order by preposition. Prepositional space arguments (both in the literal and in the figurative sense) are covered in § 4.41 on space arguments.

4.38 Two-place verbs governing an associative prepositional object with cum

Verbs denoting an action that requires two active participants, where one is more active than the other, are found with a prepositional cum-argument. Examples are (a)–(d).53 With some verbs the two participants may also be expressed as coordinated subjects with inter se often added, as in (e). Alternative prepositions are contra and adversus ‘against’. A selection of verbs can be found in Table 4.8.54 Another verb with which a cum-object can be used is nubo ‘to marry’; however, the dative is more common.

Table 4.8 Two-place verbs with an associative cum-argument

acting or living

together

coeo

‘to meet’

coniuro

‘to form a conspiracy with’

conversor

‘to associate with’

futuo

‘to have intercourse with’

moechor

‘to commit adultery with’

nugor

‘to quibble with’

sortior

‘to draw lots with’

talking

ago

‘to discuss with’

cavillor

‘to quibble with’

confabulor

‘to converse with’

iocor

‘to jest with’

loquor

‘to speak with ’

philosophor

‘to philosophize with’

sermocinor

‘to chat with’

fighting

certo

‘to contend with’

contendo

‘to compete with’

discepto

‘to debate with’

litigo

‘to quarrel with’

luctor

‘to struggle with’

rixor

‘to quarrel with’

stomachor

‘to be angry with’

(p.120) (a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Cum patre altercasti dudum…(Ter. An. 653); Malitia certare tecum miseria est. (Pl. Per. 238); Eademque ratio fecit hominem hominum adpetentem cumque iis natura et sermone et usu congruentem…(Cic. Fin. 2.45); Propterea una consentit cum filio. (Pl. Cas. 59); Dissensit cum Mario, clarissimo civi, consul nobilissimus et fortissimus, L. Sulla. (Cic. Har. 54); Quid nunc taces? Tecum loquor. (Pl. Mil. 422); Postridie signis conlatis aequo fronte peditatu equitibus atque alis cum hostium legionibus pugnavimus. (Cato hist. 99);

With some of these verbs, dative constituents are found as an alternative to the prepositional expression with cum, if the meaning resembles one of the meaning classes mentioned in § 4.24 (and Table 4.4). This use of the dative is typical of poetry and post-Classical prose and regarded as a Graecism in Antiquity.55 Parallels of (a) and (d) are (f) and (g) (note that in (g) the dative is also accompanied by an instrument adjunct and, in this case, a human being quoviro). Compare (f) with (b).

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(p.121) (h) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Metuens induceris, atque / altercante libidinibus tremis ossa pavore. (Hor. S. 2.7.56–7); Montibus in nostris solus tibi certat Amyntas. (Verg. Ecl. 5.8);…gestit paribus colludere…(Hor. Ars 159); Namque aliis rebus concrescunt semina membris / atque aliis extenuantur tabentque vicissim. (Lucr. 4.1261–2);…invito principe, cuius abditis adhuc vitiis per avaritiam ac prodigentiam mire congruebat. (Tac. Ann. 13.1.3);…tamen in Oppianico sibi constare et superioribus consentire iudiciis debuerunt. (Cic. Clu. 60); Tun’ libero homini / male servos loquere? (Pl. As. 477–8); Luctantem Icariis fluctibus Africum / mercator metuens otium et oppidi / laudat rura sui. (Hor. Carm. 1.1.15–17); Noli pugnare duobus…(Catul. 62.64);…Aetolae rursus Teucris pugnabitis umbrae. (Sil. 7.483);

Some of these verbs are found not only with an associative argument with cum, like osculor in (i), but also with a patient, as in (j). Sometimes they have a plural subject and resemble one-place verbs, as in (k).

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

(k) Verb frames

Supplement:

Accusative: Hic futuit multas…(Catul. 97.9);

Cum: ARPHOCRAS HIC CUM DRAUCA BENE FUTUIT DENARIO (CIL IV.2193 (Pompeii));

Coordination:…nescioquis inspectavit…/ Philocomasium atque hospitem / osculantis. (Pl. Mil. 174–6);

4.39 Two-place verbs of difference governing a prepositional object

Two-place verbs meaning ‘being different from’ and ‘disagreeing with’ are usually used with a prepositional phrase with ab as the second argument. Verbs that follow this pattern are differo ‘to differ from’, discrepo ‘to differ’, ‘to disagree’, disto ‘to be different’, dissentio ‘to disagree’. Examples are (a)–(c). The bare ablative case is rare, but see (d) from Pliny the Elder. Note also the associative cum-object (as in § 4.38) in (e).

(a) Verb frames

(p.122) (b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

In poetry and in post-Classical prose, the dative is found instead of a prepositional phrase. Examples are (f)–(i). In Classical prose, by contrast, it is only found with the reflexive pronoun, as in (j). It is also found with adjectives of difference and similarity (see § 4.100).

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

4.40 Further examples of prepositional arguments with two-place verbs

Below is a selection of prepositional arguments collected from the Oxford Latin Dictionary. References are included to the relevant sections in that dictionary, where more examples can be found. Literal and figurative spatial arguments have not been included in this selection (although some examples might be regarded as spatial). It is not always obvious that the prepositional expression is an argument (for example, in the case of ex).

(p.123) Ab:…Romae a iudiciis forum refrixerit…(Cic. Att. 1.1.2) (OLD § 6b); Ei mihi qualis erat, quantum mutatus ab illo / Hectore…(Verg. A. 2.274–5) (OLD § 2a);…cui mirum videbitur istum a maleficio propter acerrimam formidinem non temperasse? (Rhet. Her. 2.29) (OLD § 2a);

Ad:…quae nihil attingunt ad rem…(Pl. Mer. 32) (OLD § 24c); Quam ad rem istuc refert? (Pl. Epid. 276);

Cum: see § 4.38 (OLD § 13);

De: At hostes, posteaquam ex nocturno fremitu vigiliisque de profectione eorum senserunt,…Caes. Gal. 5.32.1) (OLD § 12);

Ex:…in caede atque ex caede vivunt. (Cic. S. Rosc. 78—NB: remarkable coordination) (OLD § 14).

4.41 Two-place verbs governing a space argument

There are several two-place verbs with which a space argument is required. However, such an argument is often absent when the situation is specified by an adjunct: for example, a manner or a time adjunct. The verb habito ‘to live’ normally requires a constituent indicating its position in space (‘where’), but such a constituent may be absent if the quality of the living is expressed, as in (a). Similarly advenio ‘I arrive’ normally requires a constituent indicating the place of arrival, but it may be absent if someone asks when the arrival took place, as in (b). The question evidently presupposes huc ‘here’.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

As with space satellites (see § 10.2) a distinction is made between three types of space arguments: position in space (§ 4.42), direction or goal (§ 4.43), and source arguments (§ 4.44). In the three subsections that follow, it is not always easy to decide whether the space expression is an argument or a satellite.

4.42 Two-place verbs governing a position in space argument

With a number of verbs denoting position in space, a second argument indicating the place where is required. Examples of position objects with the verb maneo ‘to stay’ are (a)–(d). Note in (a) the co-occurrence of two position objects (see § 10.3 for the same phenomenon with position adjuncts), and in (d) the co-occurrence of an abstract position object (in servitute) and two literal position adjuncts (hic and ad suom patrem). Sum ‘to be somewhere’, as in (e), can be considered among these verbs as well.

(a) Verb frames

(p.124) (b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Position objects are found with the following verbs: habito ‘to live’, opperior ‘to wait’, sedeo ‘to sit’, sto ‘to stand’, cubo ‘to recline’, iaceo ‘to lie’, versor ‘to be involved’, sum ‘to be somewhere’.56

The verbs consido ‘to sit’, ‘to settle’ and consisto ‘to stand still’, ‘to stay’ allow both a position object and a direction or goal object (for three-place verbs that offer the same option, see § 4.81). The position expression is more common than a direction or goal expression, certainly in the Classical period, as in (f) and (g).

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

For the various classes of constituents found as position objects (bare case forms, prepositional phrases, adverbs, and subordinate clauses) see § 10.3.

4.43 Two-place verbs governing a direction or goal argument

With a number of verbs of motion, a second argument indicating the direction or goal is required. This is the case with pervenio ‘to come (to a place or person)’ and appello ‘to bring to shore’, as in (a) and (b), respectively.57 In (c) and (d), the reflexive expressions te agis ‘you betake yourself’ and me confero ‘I betake myself’ are meaningless by themselves, so a direction argument is required. These direction arguments are found not only with compound verbs of motion with the prefixes ad-, per-, sub-, but also with e.g. (p.125) contendo ‘to hasten’, redeo ‘to return’, revertor ‘to return’. For a remarkable use of the dative in Late Latin, see (e).58

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

A direction object is also common with verbs like aspicio ‘to look at’, as in (f), and specto ‘to look at’ (also in its meaning ‘face’, as in (g), indicating spatial orientation) (NB: it is also used with a patient object). Direction of an abstract type with the same verb is involved in (h).59

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

For the various classes of constituents found as direction or goal objects (bare case forms, prepositional phrases, adverbs, and subordinate clauses), see § 10.7. Many of these verbs also have a bare accusative case form as second argument (see § 4.22).

4.44 Two-place verbs governing a source argument in the ablative

Source arguments are most commonly found with two-place verbs designating ‘motion away from’ or ‘separation’, as in (a)–(c). These arguments are usually expressed by means of a prepositional phrase, but a few bare ablatives are attested in Classical prose (even if they are often emended). Bare ablatives are preferred in (p.126) poetry and are also used freely in prose from Livy onwards (the so-called ablativus separativus), possibly because they were perceived as archaic.60

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

When these verbs are used in a non-literal sense and when the source object is more abstract, bare case expressions are quite common, as in the following examples (d)–(f). In Classical prose such instances are sometimes emended.

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

Source objects are found with some simple verbs (apart from the ones given, cedo ‘to give way’, ‘to retire’ and—rarely—cado ‘to fall’, among others) and with many compound verbs consisting of one of the preverbs ab-, de-, and ex- and verbal stems related to the simple verbs cado, cedo, eo ‘to go’, gradior ‘to walk’, labor ‘to slip’, sisto ‘to cause to stand’. With many of these compounds prepositional phrases can be used as well. Compounds with the preverb dis- (e.g. discedo ‘to leave’) usually govern a prepositional phrase (especially ab, but also ex and de), but poets and later prose authors also use the bare ablative. (For a few other dis-compounds, see § 4.39) For the use of the dative, especially in poetry, see (g). It is comparable with the use of the dative with three-place verbs of taking away (see § 4.51).

(p.127) (g) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Ablative: Sed quid currentem servom a portu conspicor, / quem navi abire vetui? (Pl. Mer. 109–10); Quid mihi tam multas laudando, Basse, puellas / mutatum domina cogis abire mea? (Prop. 1.4.2—NB: highly unusual); At enim, quoniam…alii iracundi aut crudeles aut superbi sint,…alii <a> (Lambinus) talibus vitiis abhorreant…(Cic. Fat. 8); Et repperi haec te qui apscedat suspicio. (Pl. Epid. 285); ‘Procul o procul este, profani’ / conclamat vates, ‘totoque absistite luco’. (Verg. A. 6.258–9); In quis notissimus quisque aut malo dependens verberabatur aut…(Sal. Hist. 3.9); Si qui graviore vulnere accepto equo deciderat, circumsistebant. (Caes. Gal. 1.48.6);…quae deciderant patula Iovis arbore, glandes. (Ov. Met. 1.106); Tum regina deum caelo delapsa morantis / impulit ipsa manu portas…(Verg. A. 7.620–1); Numquam ante hoc tempus exercitum populi Romani Galliae provinciae finibus egressum. (Caes. Gal. 1.44.7—NB: v.l. fines ingressum); Ubi portu eximus, homines remigio sequi, / neque aves neque venti citius. (Pl. Bac. 289–90);…exit / conditor urbe sua…(Ov. Met. 4.565–6); Ictum firmitas materiae sustinet et quidquid incidit fastigio musculi elabitur. (Caes. Civ. 2.11.1); Modo articuli suis sedibus excidunt. (Cels. 8.11.1); Etenim prope est spelunca quaedam…, qua Ditem patrem ferunt repente cum curru extitisse…(Cic. Ver. 4.107);

Prepositional phrase: Sed ex eo credo quibusdam usu venire ut abhorreant a Latinis, quod…(Cic. Fin. 1.8);…uti ab signis legionibusque non absisterent. (Caes. Gal. 5.17.2); Ne balant quidem, quom a pecu cetero apsunt. (Pl. Bac. 1138a);

Dative: Huic tam pacatae profectioni ab urbe regis Etrusci abhorrens mos…manet bona Porsennae regis vendendi. (Liv. 2.14.1); Si qui earum urbium cives quae regno abscedunt cum rege Antiocho intraque fines regni eius sunt, Apameam omnes ante diem certam redeunto. (Liv. 38.38.6); Serta procul, tantum capiti delapsa, iacebant…(Verg. Ecl. 6.16);

Accusative:…abhorrentis quosdam cadaverum tabem detestabili voce confirmare ausus est…(Suet. Vit. 10.3);

4.45 Two-place verbs denoting descent or provenance

Another group of two-place verbs and expressions governing the ablative are those denoting descent or provenance. The ablative is particularly common with perfect participles such as natus (or gnatus) ‘born’, ortus ‘arisen’, editus ‘issued’, with oriundus ‘springing’, ‘descending’, and with the verb nascor ‘to be born’. Alternatives include prepositional expressions with ex, and also with ab and de.

A distinction is usually made between three types of descent: (i) parent–child relationship, as in (a) and (b); (ii) the more distant relationship between a person and his ancestors, as in (d); (iii) family or clan relationship. In the first type, the bare ablative is normal, especially in the Classical period, but with pronouns the preposition is regular, as in (c). In the second type, prepositions are normal, particularly in (p.128) the Classical period. An example is (d). Family and clan relationships, finally, are usually expressed with the ablatives of locus ‘place’, genus ‘family’, as in (e), familia ‘household’, or stirps ‘stock’, usually without a preposition, but see (f).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Telamone creatus…(Ov. Met. 13.22); Pandarus et Bitias, Idaeo Alcanore creti…(Verg. A. 9.672); Maecenas, atavis edite regibus…(Hor. Carm. 1.1.1); Haec e Tartarea tenebrica abstractum plaga / tricipitem eduxit Hydra generatum canem? (Cic. Tusc. 2.22—NB: Cicero’s translation of Soph. Trach. 1097–8); Sic itur ad astra, / dis genite et geniture deos. (Verg. A. 9.641–2); AROS RUFIS ATINEA NATUS (CIE 3498 (Perugia));61 Non enim silice nati sumus…(Cic. Tusc. 3.12); Respice, quaeso, aliquando rem publicam, M. Antoni. Quibus ortus sis, non quibuscum vivas considera. (Cic. Phil. 2.118—NB: no preposition62); Minerva prima, quam Apollinis matrem supra diximus, secunda orta Nilo, quam Aegyptii Saietae colunt…(Cic. N.D. 3.59); Denique caelesti sumus omnes semine oriundi. (Lucr. 2.991); Tun’ meo patre es prognatus? (Pl. Men. 1079);…Camertem, / magnanimo Volcente satum…(Verg. A. 10.562–3);

For the various classes of constituents found as source objects (bare case forms, prepositional phrases, and adverbs) see § 10.13 (source adjuncts). For expressing the home town or home country, the rules for topographical names apply (see § 10.17).

(p.129) 4.46 Two-place verbs with either a dative or an accusative second argument

A number of two-place verbs have two frames corresponding to two (or more) different meanings. The use of the dative corresponds to its use in the meaning classes mentioned in § 4.24. The principal verbs involved are given in Table 4.9.63 A few typical alternative patterns are added in the Supplement, but there is no aim at being complete. Only caveo is dealt with in more detail. Some two-place verbs governing a dative are also found in three-place frames (also with differences in meaning); they are discussed at the end of this section.

Table 4.9 Two-place verbs governing a dative or an accusative

Dative

Alternative patterns

Accusative

Alternative patterns

caveo

‘to look out for’

‘to beware of’

abl. (also ab + abl.)

consulo

‘to look after or to’

‘to consult’

convenio

‘to agree with’

‘to visit’

cupio

‘to wish well’

causa + gen.

‘to wish’

maneo

‘to be in store’

‘to wait for’

metuo

‘to be afraid for’

pro + abl.

‘to be afraid of’

prospicio

‘to make provisions for’

‘to see in front’

provideo

‘to provide (for)’

‘to see in advance’

tempero

‘to exercise moderation

(in respect of)’

‘to moderate’

timeo

‘to be afraid for’

pro + abl.

‘to be afraid of’

vereor

‘to fear for’

de + abl.

‘to fear’

gen.

volo

‘to wish well’ (bene, male)

causa + gen.

‘to wish’

The examples of caveo below are arranged in the order ‘accusative + alternatives’ ‘to beware of’, as in (a)–(d) and ‘dative’ ‘to look out for’, as in (e)–(i). The second argument in the ‘to beware of’ cases is treated either as a patient or as a source (as in § 4.44). There is one odd example in Apuleius of a dative object where the meaning must be ‘to beware of’ (see the Supplement). Animate patients are only attested from Cicero onwards, but that may be accidental. The ‘to look out for’ instances are much less frequent, and it is remarkable that many datives are reflexive pronouns, as in (f). Since reflexive pronouns also occur with ‘to beware of’ frames in which the second argument is a source, as in (e), or in which the second argument is an ut/ne clause (see the Supplement), these reflexives may be also regarded as beneficiary satellites (on this (p.130) use of reflexive pronouns, see § 10.70; see, however, also praecaveo in § 4.86, Supplement). The first non-reflexive animate datives are attested in Cicero, as in (g); inanimate datives are found from Velleius onwards, as in (h). There are also a few instances of a three-place frame with an accusative object (or an ut-clause) and a dative, as in (i) meaning ‘to arrange something for’.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

…quippe cum aviditati contumaciaeque summe cavere et utramque culpam vitare…deberem. (Apul. Met. 11.21.5—NB: Oudendorp suggested emendations); Cave sis tibi, / ne tu immutassis nomen, si hoc concreduo. (Pl. Aul. 584–5); Ne ille edepol tergo et cruribus consuluit hau decore. (Pl. As. 409); Haruspicem, augurem, hariolum, Chaldaeum ne quem consuluisse velit. (Cato Agr. 5.4); Non omnis aetas, Lyde, ludo convenit. (Pl. Bac. 129); Ecquem convenisti? # Multos. (Pl. St. 342);…ipsi cupio Glycerio. (Ter. An. 905); Omnia quae tu vis, ea cupio. (Pl. Per. 766); Manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria…(Cic. Sen. 22); Quamquam hic manere me erus sese iusserat, / certum est. (Pl. Aul. 680–1); Ego cunas recessim (p.131) rursum vorsum trahere et ducere, / metuens pueris, mihi formidans. (Pl. Am. 1112–13); Mihi, nisi ut erum metuam et curem, nihil est qui tergum tegam. (Pl. Mos. 992); Nolo ego mi te tam prospicere…(Pl. Trin. 688);…ipse autem ex equo nudatam ab se provinciam prospicit. (Cic. Ver. 2.154); Nil me curassis, inquam, ego mi providero. (Pl. Mos. 526); Non hercle te provideram…(Pl. As. 450); Abi intro, ne molestu’s, linguae tempera. Pl. Rud. 1254); Eodem modo latitudinem orbiculis ligneis aut armillis ferreis temperato, usque dum recte temperabitur. (Cato Agr. 22.2);…dicitur et Atheniensis Clisthenes Iunoni Samiae, civis egregius, quom rebus timeret suis, filiarum dotis credidisse. (Cic. Leg. 2.41); Si illum relinquo, eius vitae timeo. Sin opitulor, huius minas…(Ter. An. 210);…eo minus veritus navibus, quod…(Caes. Gal. 5.9.1); Per…/ Iunonem, quam me vereri et metuere est par maxume…(Pl. Am. 831–2); Quid agit filius? / Bene volt tibi. (Pl. Trin. 437–8); Secede huc, Libane. Te volo. (Pl. As. 639);

In the case of cupio, metuo, timeo, and vereor in combination with a dative constituent, the existence of more or less synonymous prepositional alternatives raises the question of whether the verbs should be regarded as one-place, combined with a beneficiary satellite. This idea might find further support in the existence of instances like (j) and (k), where the verb is found in its two-place frame, with its accusative object and a dative.64

(j) Verb frames

(k) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Quodsi interesse quippiam tantulum modo potuerit in amicitia, amicitiae nomen iam occiderit, cuius est ea vis ut, simul atque sibi aliquid alter maluerit, nulla sit. (Cic. Leg. 1.34); Patri quid non timeo, si eum apud piratas relinquo? (Sen. Con. 7.4.2); Nihil est enim mali, nihil sceleris quod illa non ab initio filio voluerit optaverit cogitaverit effecerit. (Cic. Clu. 188—NB: note the parallelism);

The verb moderor can also be used with a dative or an accusative second argument. However, it is difficult to associate distinct meanings with the two case patterns (see OLD). The dative is especially used by Plautus and Cicero and is preferred by them in certain combinations (for example, orationi moderor ‘to restrain one’s language’), where moderor ‘refer(s) to exercising self-restraint’. Moderor with the accusative ‘refer(s) to restraining or controlling an entity external to the agent’.65 But Plautus has domino moderor ‘to restrain one’s master’ and Sallust linguam moderor ‘to keep one’s tongue in check’. The picture is not very clear.

(p.132) 4.47 Impersonal two-place verbs

4.48 Impersonal two-place emotion verbs with a genitive cause argument

Latin has a small number of emotion verbs (indicating unpleasant feelings) with which the cause of the emotion is either expressed by a nominal expression in the genitive—and rarely by a prepositional phrase—or by a clause that functions as subject (see § 15.8). Neuter pronouns that are used as subjects can also be found. The entity feeling the emotion (the experiencer) is expressed by a noun or noun phrase in the accusative. The most common (simple) verbs can be found in Table 4.10. Of these paenitet and pudet are relatively frequent. Examples are given in (a)–(f). If the cause constituent is coreferentially related to the experiencer constituent, the reflexive pronoun (suus) is used, as in (g).66

Table 4.10 Two-place emotion verbs governing a genitive object

miseret

‘it moves to pity for’

paenitet

‘it causes regret’

miseretur

‘it moves to pity for’

piget

‘it causes displeasure’

miserescit

‘it moves to pity for’

pudet

‘it fills with shame’

veretur

‘to be in awe of’

taedet

‘it makes tired of’

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(p.133) Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Me quidem miseret parietum ipsorum atque tectorum. (Cic. Phil. 2.69);…neque me tui neque tuorum liberum…misereri potest. (Cic. Ver. 1.77);…meque vehementer vitae meae paeniteret…(Cic. Planc. 82);…ut me non solum pigeat stultitiae meae sed etiam pudeat…(Cic. Dom. 29); Sed est incredibile quam me negoti taedeat…(Cic. Att. 5.15.1);…ut non minus verborum puderet quam pigeret morum et misereret facinorum. (Fro. Ver. 2.10);

Reflexives:…minime paenitere se virium suarum, si bellum placeat. (Liv. 8.23.5);

In an appropriate context, both arguments may be implicit. An instance is the exclamatory, indignant expression with only an infinitive in Ter. Ph. 233: Non pudere! ‘That (he, sc. Antipho) does not feel ashamed (sc. about marrying without asking permission)!’. Cf. Nil pudere! (Ter. Ph. 1042) (for the accusative and infinitive expressions in exclamatory sentences, see § 6.35).

For the verbs in the left column of Table 4.10, ‘personal’ alternatives with the experiencer as subject exist. In this construction the cause of the emotion is still expressed (see § 4.35). As for ‘personal’ alternatives for the verbs in the right column, instances of ‘personal’ forms with an explicit cause constituent as subject are rare and mostly Late.67 Examples are (h), with quod as the subject, and (i) with a clause as the subject. The earliest attestation of personal paeniteo is (j) with the cause as the subject. It is regarded as an intrusion of later date.68

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Deinde utrum id facinus sit, quod paenitere fuerit necesse…(Cic. Inv. 2.43); Sequitur, ut nihil paeniteat, nihil desit, nihil obstet (Cic. Tusc. 5.53); Sapientis est…proprium nihil quod (cuius cj. Lambinus) paenitere possit facere…(Cic. Tusc. 5.81—see Dougan ad loc.);…pridie caveat ne faciat quod pigeat postridie. (Pl. St. 122); Nilne te pudet? (Pl. As. 933); Pudet nil? (Ter. Ad. 244); Non te haec pudent? (Ter. Ad. 754); Pudebat, credo, com­memoramentum stupri. (Caecil. com. 166 R3);

Personal constructions with the experiencer as subject are infrequent but found from Early Latin onward, resembling in this respect verbs like gaudeo ‘to be glad’ and maereo ‘to be sad’. An example is (k). The present and perfect participles are found regu­larly, (p.134) especially of paeniteo and pudeo, as in (l). Personal use of paeniteo becomes frequent from c. AD 100 onward, especially in (moralizing) texts of ecclesiastical authors.

(k) Verb frames

(l) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Proloqui non paenitebunt liberi…(Pacuv. 31); Sapientem nihil opinari, nullius rei paenitere, nulla in re falli, sententiam mutare numquam. (Cic. Mur. 61—NB: coordination with indisputable subjects);69 Aetolos…si paenitere possint, posse et incolumis esse. (Liv. 36.22.3);…et non vult paeniteri (v.l. paenitere) a fornicatione sua. (Vet. Lat. Apoc. 2.21);…pertaesus, ut scribit, morum perversitatem eius…(Suet. Aug. 62.2—NB: with accusative object);…dum pudeo, pereo (Val. com. 1.4—cj.);…qui assiduis conviciis pudere didicerat…(Sen. Dial. 2.17.3);…et perhorrescat necesse est et pudeat tacitus et paeniteat et gaudeat et admiretur…(Gel. 5.1.3);

Gerund and gerundive: Consilii nostri, ne si eos quidem qui id secuti sunt non paeniteret, nobis paenitendum putarem. (Cic. Fam. 9.5.2); Ad paenitendum properat cito qui iudicat. (Pub. Sent. A 32);

Appendix 1: The verbs in the right column of Table 4.10 are also found with a genitive constituent referring to the person in whose presence one feels a sense of shame, etc.: Deum [= deorum] hercle me atque hominum pudet. (Pl. Trin. 912). There is one example where both such a genitive and a genitive of cause are found together: Patris mei meum factum [= meorum factorum] pudet…(Enn. scen. 59V=37J).

Appendix 2: Rarely a ‘personal’ construction is replaced by an ‘impersonal’ one with the cause of the emotion as subject of the clause. Horreo ‘to shudder’ is found with the cause as the object (in the accusative) in its meaning ‘to shudder at’, ‘tremble at’ from Cicero onwards, as in (m). A Late Latin instance of ‘impersonal’ horret with the cause as the subject is (n).

(m) Verb frames

(n) Verb frames

The way the material is organized in the Thesaurus article suggests that ‘impersonal’ horret is related to the poetically derived meaning ‘to be dirty, to be ghastly, to be awful’, as in (o). A more systematic explanation as given above is preferable. Other instances are (p)–(s).70

(o) Verb frames

(p.135) (p) Verb frames

(q) Verb frames

(r) Verb frames

(s) Verb frames

4.49 The ‘impersonal’ verbs interest and rēfert

Interest ‘to matter’, ‘to be in the interest of’ rarely occurs with an explicit nominal subject, with the exception of neuter pronouns, as in (a) the demonstrative pronoun illud used in its preparative function, and in (b) the relative pronoun quod. Clauses of various types functioning as subject are common (see § 15.12). Rēfert (which of course has nothing to do with the verb refero ‘to bring back’) is used with a neuter pronoun or with a clause as its subject, as in (c) and (d), and rarely with a noun phrase, as in (e). Of these two verbs, rēfert is more frequent in Early Latin. However, it begins to disappear gradually from Cicero onward. The person or the entity representing human beings (like res publica) to which something matters can be expressed in the genitive case. Instead of the genitive of the personal pronouns the feminine ablative form of the corresponding possessive adjectives is used (meā, tuā, nostrā, vestrā, and reflexive suā; exceptional is cuiā).71 It is very frequently the case, however, that with these verbs an entity concerned with the state of affairs is not expressed.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(p.136) (e) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Genitive: Quid quaeso eius intererat? (Cic. S. Rosc. 96); Et coli moverique terram callumque summae cutis solvi aquarum interest. (Plin. Nat. 31.53);…ex his solis causis quae ipsius intersint…(Ulp. dig. 4.4.3.4—NB: plural subject);…ipsorum id plurimum referre. (Liv. 40.34.10);…QUOD EIUS REI QUAERUNDAI CENSEANT REFERE… (CIL I2.583.32 (Lex Acilia, Rome, 122 BC)—NB: gerundival clause); Nam ut taceam de neglegentibus, quorum nihil refert ubi litium cardo vertatur…(Quint. Inst. 12.8.2);

Ablative:…non quo mea interesset loci natura qui lucem omnino fugerem…(Cic. Att. 3.19.1—NB: substantival subject);…ut saltem deliberare plebes Romana possit, quid intersit sua, quid expediat…(Cic. Agr. 2.66);…videbis, ut soles, omnia quae intelleges nostra interesse…(Cic. Att. 6.4.2—NB: plural subject); Sed non solum rei publicae verum etiam mea interest hanc recipi rogationem. (Quint. Decl. 253.6); Ecquid est quod mea referat? (Pl. Rud. 949); Quod promisisset non plus sua referre quam si, cum auctionem venderet, domini iussu quippiam promisisset. (Cic. Quinct. 19);

Appendix: Exceptional are instances of interest such as (f) and of rēfert such as (g), with the entity to which something matters in the dative case, which are best explained as beneficiary adjuncts (see § 10.70).72

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

The entity for which something matters can be expressed by a prepositional phrase with ad, as in (h) and (i). These expressions can best be regarded as purpose adjuncts (see § 10.84).

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(p.137) 4.50 Three-place verbs

There are two classes of verbs with which, as a rule, three constituents are required. One class of verbs has two arguments with their own referential properties, and a third without referential properties of its own, linked in an ‘equative’ way to the second argument. An example of this class is (a). Caecos, the third argument, has no referential properties: its number, gender, and case depend on the second argument ipsos. This class of verbs is dealt with in §§ 4.87–4.89. By far the majority of three-place verbs have three ‘distinct’ arguments, each with its own referential properties. An example is (b). Verbs with three ‘distinct’ arguments are dealt with in § 4.51.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

It is not always easy to ascertain the valency of this class of verbs that require three distinct arguments. Often one of the three arguments is implied on the basis of contextual information and so remains unexpressed. Furthermore, no particular third argument needs to be intended, as in (c). This looks like the absolute use of two-place verbs discussed in § 4.5.

(c) Verb frames

4.51 Three-place verbs with three distinct arguments

On a high level of abstraction, two or possibly three different frames can be distinguished. Most three-place verbs with three distinct participants implement at least one of the following, viz.:

  1. (i) the ‘treatment’ or ‘supplying with’ frame

  2. (ii) the ‘transfer’ or ‘giving’ frame

  3. (iii) the ‘spatial’ frame

Ex. (a), already quoted previously, is a good example of the ‘treatment’ or ‘supplying with’ frame. In this example, the object (civem sceleratum) is in the accusative case, has the semantic function of patient, and may become the subject in the passive, like domus in (b). The third argument (pecunia), in turn, is in the ablative case and formally resembles an instrument adjunct, but semantically not all ablative third arguments can be described as instruments (details in § 4.53). In contrast to the accusative object, the ablative constituent cannot become the subject of the passivized (p.138) clause. Prototypically, the accusative patient is an animate being, the ablative inanimate. Note, however, that in specific contexts the ablative constituent may be animate, as in (c), where it occurs in a military context. The case pattern {accusative + ablative} is characteristic of this frame.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

The ‘transfer’ or ‘giving’ frame is exemplified by (d). Here, regna omnia Syrorum is the second argument in the accusative, with the semantic function of patient. In the passive, this constituent would be the subject of the clause. The dative constituent cui is the indirect object, with the semantic function of recipient. It cannot become subject of a passive clause. The case pattern of this example {dative + accusative} is characteristic of this frame. Prototypically, the dative recipient is an animate being, the accusative inanimate.

(d) Verb frames

The ‘spatial’ frame is exemplified by (e). The verbs involved require a second argument in the accusative and a position, direction, or source argument, usually a prepositional phrase. Only the second argument can become the subject of a passive clause.

(e) Verb frames

Whereas most verbs have only one frame, there are a number of verbs that occur both in the first and in the second frame. The verb dono, for example, has not only the ‘transfer’ or ‘giving’ frame illustrated by (d), but also the ‘treatment’ or ‘supplying with’ frame, as in (f). An interesting instance of frame variation can be found in (g). There are more than 100 verbs that occur in two frames. Details are given in § 4.54.73

(p.139) (f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

From the formal point of view, the following case and preposition patterns can be distinguished for three-place verbs with three distinct arguments (only active forms are taken into account; in passive clauses ‘accusative’ corresponds to ‘nominative’):

Table 4.11 Case patterns of three-place verbs with three distinct arguments

nom N1

V

acc N2

– acc N3

dat N3

abl N3

gen N3

prep N3

nom N1

V

acc N2

acc N3

nom N1

V

dat N2

abl N3

‘nom’, ‘acc’, etc. = nominative, accusative, etc.; ‘N’ = noun (phrase) (including pronouns); N1 = 1st argument; N2 = 2nd argument; N3 = 3rd argument; ‘V’ = verb; ‘– acc’ = another case than the accusative, but not a nominative; ‘prep’ = preposition. The cases in the rightmost column are given in the order of relative frequency.

Examples for the N3 constituents in the ablative and dative and with a preposition can be found above in (a), (d), and (e), respectively. Examples for the other patterns are (h) {acc N2 + gen N3}, (i) {acc N2 + acc N3}, and (j) {dat N2 + abl N3}.

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

The patterns in the first row of Table 4.11 with an accusative constituent and a non-accusative constituent are the most frequent; those in the last row are exceptional. Whereas most verbs in the first row of the table allow only one N3 form, quite a few allow more than one. Verbs that belong to the same semantic class often have the same form or a number of more or less synonymous alternative forms for the N3, but many verbs belong to more than one semantic class and for that reason allow more than one form for the N3 as well. The pattern with two accusatives is firmly associated (p.140) with a few verbs. It also occurs as an occasional alternative of all the other patterns, although not necessarily always grammatically correct (see below § 4.72).

The remainder of this section on three-place verbs is structured along the lines of Table 4.11. Verbs or classes of verbs that have more than one case or preposition pattern are discussed in the section about their most common pattern.

4.52 Three-place verbs with an accusative + dative case pattern

The broad semantic description given above (‘transfer’ or ‘giving’, and their antonyms) covers a number of more specific lexical classes, illustrated below by a few mainly non-compounded verbs.

Table 4.12 Three-place verbs with an accusative + dative pattern

giving

do

‘to give’

adimo

‘to deny’

invideo

‘to begrudge’

praebeo

‘to offer’

sacrifico

‘to offer up as a sacrifice’

immolo

‘to offer in sacrifice’

communication

dico

‘to say’

promitto

‘to promise’

iuro

‘to swear’

nuntio

‘to report’

narro

‘to tell’

impero

‘to command’

bringing

fero

‘to bring’

mitto

‘to send’

reduco

‘to bring back’

ago (gratias)

‘to give thanks’

joining

iungo

‘to join’

coniungo

‘to connect’

apto

‘to fit’

copulo

‘to couple’

socio

‘to unite’

necto

‘to connect’

NB: With verbs of communication the second argument is often a clause. Details are given in Chapter 15.

Examples of the pattern under discussion are (a)–(d). Whereas (a)–(c) have the prototypical combination of an inanimate object and an animate (human) recipient, in (d) both arguments are inanimate.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(p.141) The dative recipient arguments with these verbs formally resemble dative beneficiary adjuncts. The difference between the two becomes apparent from a comparison between (e) recipient, and (f) beneficiary.74

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

The four classes distinguished in Table 4.12 contain both simple verbs and compound verbs. The latter belong to these meaning classes on the basis of either the meaning of the preverb, the meaning of the simplex, or the combined meanings of the preverb and the simplex.

Both simplex verbs and compounds are also found with another pattern consisting of an accusative and a prepositional phrase denoting direction. Several of the compounds are predominantly found with a prepositional third argument; the preposition often corresponds to the preverb of the compound, as with the verb accommodo ‘to adapt’ in (g) and (h). The choice between the two alternatives is to some extent dependent on whether the third argument is inanimate or animate (in the latter case, the dative is preferred) and on whether the verb is used in its figurative or literal meaning (in the latter case, the preposition is used more often). The existence of two distinct constructions such as these is an important element in the evolution of the case and prepositional systems in Latin. See § 12.31.

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

The variation between the accusative + dative and accusative + prepositional phrase is shown for verbs of giving in (i) and (j).

(p.142) (i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Dative expressions:lassitudinem hercle verba tua mihi addunt…(Pl. Mer. 156); Aurumque ei ademit hospiti…(Pl. Mos. 481); Nil equidem tibi apstuli. (Pl. Aul. 635); Numquam edepol omnes balineae mi hanc lassitudinem eximent. (Pl. Mer. 127); Filio suo qui innocenti fecit tantam iniuriam. (Pl. Mer. 979); Sed quae est invidia aut quid mihi nunc invideri potest? (Cic. Fam. 9.16.5);…licet et Christiano reconciliationem Dei patris invideat…(Tert. Pud. 8.4);…piscatores qui praebent populo piscis foetidos…(Pl. Capt. 813); Nam inde rem solvo omnibus quibus debeo. (Pl. Cur. 722);…ut deo mi hic immolas bovem. (Pl. As. 713); Poeni suos soliti dis sacrificare puellos…(Enn. Ann. 221V=214S (who omits dis));

Direction expressions:hunc laborem ad cotidiana opera addebant. (Caes. Civ. 3.49.4); Eas (sc. epistulas) in eundem fasciculum velim addas…(Cic. Att. 12.53);

The notions of ‘bringing’ may imply the shift of ownership of a certain entity, but they may also imply the transportation from one owner or place to the other. The verb mitto ‘to send’, for example, may denote both transportation of an entity from one location to another and transfer of an entity from one person to another. In the first case, it has a direction third argument, in the second, a recipient third argument. Examples are (k) and (l), respectively.

(k) Verb frames

(l) Verb frames

In many studies and manuals the two expressions are considered synonymous. However, there are distributional differences both for the object constituents and for the third arguments, which show that this is not the case.75

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Dative expressions: Nunc adeo nisi mi huc argenti affert viginti minas…(Pl. As. 532—NB: recipient dative and direction adjunct juxtaposed); Inde ignem in aram, ut Ephesiae Dianae laeta laudes / gratisque agam…(Pl. Mil. 411–12);…atque Alcumenae in tempore auxilium feram…(Pl. Am. 877); Megadorus iussit Euclioni haec mittere. (Pl. Aul. 353); Redduco hanc tibi. (Pl. Per. 659);

Direction expressions: Illud facito ut memineris, / convenisse ut ne quid dotis mea ad te afferret filia. (Pl. Aul. 257–8);…quamplures ad praetores et consules vinum (p.143) honorarium dabant. (Cato orat. 132); Tu servos iube / hunc ad me ferant. (Pl. Men. 955–6);…ut hanc ne quoquam mitteret nisi ad se hunc annum totum. (Pl. As. 635);…Demetri Magnetis librum quem ad te misit de concordia velim mihi mittas. (Cic. Att. 8.12.6); Ibo domum atque ad parentes redducam Selenium. (Pl. Cist. 629–30);

A number of communication verbs also have two alternative expressions: either with a direction argument or with an addressee argument. Instances include the verbs nuntio ‘to report’ and scribo ‘to write’ in the examples (m)–(p). The direction expression is relatively more frequent in Cicero’s letters (which were indeed sent and were not meant for publication) than in the letters of Seneca and Pliny.76

(m) Verb frames

(n) Verb frames

(o) Verb frames

(p) Verb frames

The dative can also be used independently and interpreted as the marker of the recipient or addressee of a letter, as in (q), written on the outside of one of the Tabulae found in the army camp in Windisch (Switzerland):

(q) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Dative expressions: Hoc erat quod vobis clamabam…(Sen. Con. 1.7.14); Quid ego feci qua istaec propter dicta dicantur mihi? (Pl. Am. 815); Nunc hanc tibi ego impero provinciam. (Pl. Mil. 1159); Alium tibi, Bacche, furorem / iuravi. (Stat. Theb. 4.396–7);…tibi ego haec loquor…(Pl. Ps. 227); An mos hic ita est / peregrino ut advenienti narrent fabulas? (Pl. Men. 723–4); Sed, pater, quod promisisti mihi te quaeso ut memineris…(Pl. Bac. 746); Quo die ego ad te haec misi, de Pilia et Attica mihi quoque eadem quae scribis et scribuntur et nuntiantur. (Cic. Att. 12.40.5); Non haec tibi litora suasit / Delius…(Verg. A. 3.161–2);77

(p.144) Direction expressions: Et clamabant alter ad alterum et dicebant ‘…’(Vulg. Is. 6.3);…veterem historiam inductus studio scribis ad amores tuos. (Lucil. 612M = 672K); Quod ad te scripseram ut cum Camillo communicares, de eo Camillus mihi scripsit <te> secum locutum. (Cic. Att. 11.23.1); Velim domum ad te scribas…(Cic. Att. 4.14.1—NB: two direction expressions, cf. § 10.7); Sed plane parum cogitat quid scribat aut ad quem. (Cic. Att. 6.3.7);

The verb iungo in its meaning ‘to join’, ‘to fasten to’, ‘to attach to’ (OLD s.v. 2a) is found with a dative recipient (see (d) above). Not surprisingly, this meaning allows a prepositional directional alternative with ad as well, as in (r). A third option is a prepositional phrase with cum, functioning as an associative, as in (s). However, iungo is also found with the ablative (according to some scholars this was the original pattern of this verb and of misceo ‘to mix’—see also § 4.53),78 as in (t). In this pattern, the second argument is a patient and the third is the entity the patient is provided with by an act of joining. Exx. (u)–(w) from Cicero, involving abstract nouns, can be explained along the same lines: in (u) sapientia is added to eloquentia. Ex. (v) is the associative variant, whereas (w) represents the supplying with frame. The dative is said to increase from Classical Latin onwards, resulting in a decrease of the ablative. However, although this observation may be correct from the statistical point of view, it is not clear whether the dative replaces the ablative in all the frames that are typical of the ablative. It may rather be the case that the texts of later times have more verbs that have a frame that requires the dative.

(r) Verb frames

(s) Verb frames

(t) Verb frames

(u) Verb frames

(v) Verb frames

(p.145) (w) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Dative expressions: Illic homo socium ad malam rem quaerit quem adiungat sibi. (Pl. As. 288); Ipse…/ dona recognoscit populorum aptatque superbis / postibus. (Verg. A. 8.720–2); Huic (sc. Palatio) Cermalum et Vel[l]ias…coniunxerunt. (Var. L. 5.54);…iners hiemi continuatur hiems. (Ov. Pont. 1.2.24); Altera ratis aeque lata, longa pedes centum, ad traiciendum flumen apta, huic copulata est. (Liv. 21.28.7);…curru (NB: dative) iungit Halaesus equos…(Verg. A. 7.724); Demens qui servo filiam iunxit. (Sen. Con. Exc. 7.6 tit.);…cum causae causa nexa rem ex se gignat. (Cic. Div. 1.125);…ne cui me vinclo vellem sociare iugali…(Verg. A. 4.16);

Direction expressions: Quam ad probos propinquitate proxume te adiunxeris, / tam optumum est. (Pl. Aul. 236–7); Quod ne faciat (admissarius), paulisper ad molam iunctus amoris saevitiam labore temperat…(Col. 6.37);

In the above instances of iungo and its compounds, the accusative argument is an affected patient. This frame should not be confused with the two-place frame in its meaning ‘to make by joining’ (OLD s.v. § 5), with an effected object in the accusative and an ablative instrument adjunct, as in (x). Here a dative is obviously excluded. In (y), the two sides of the river Ticinus are connected, the bridge being an instrument adjunct.

(x) Verb frames

(y) Verb frames

There is still another pattern for these verbs with the preposition cum, the status of which is difficult to assess (‘to enter into by joining’—OLD s.v. § 8). It may be taken as an associative third argument. An example is (z). Making friends, associates, etc. requires the participation of a co-agent. However, this is dependent on the meaning of the nouns involved (consuetudines and amicitias are in the plural—res and rationes in the example are possible because they are coordinated) and not by the meaning of iungo as such.

(z) Verb frames

Several other verbs for which the accusative + dative pattern is predominant are also found with the alternative pattern accusative + ablative, as in (aa) and (ab).

(aa) Verb frames

(p.146) (ab) Verb frames

4.53 Three-place verbs with an accusative + ablative case pattern

The broad semantic description given above (‘treatment’ or ‘supplying with’, and their antonyms) covers a number of more specific lexical classes, illustrated in Table 4.13 with a few, partly non-compounded, verbs.

Table 4.13 Three-place verbs with an accusative + ablative pattern

supplying with

afficio

‘to furnish’

instruo

‘to equip’

orno

‘to furnish’

fraudo

‘to cheat’

privo

‘to deprive’

libero

‘to free’

nudo

‘to strip’

solvo

‘to free’

teaching

erudio

‘to instruct’

instruo

‘to instruct’

imbuo

‘to give initial instruction’

expolio

‘to embellish’

assuefacio

‘to accustom’

filling

compleo

‘to fill’

impleo

‘to fill’, ‘to cover’

refercio

‘to cram’

cumulo

‘to load’

onero

‘to load’

satio

‘to fill to repletion’

obruo

‘to cover’

stipo

‘to fill’

mixing

misceo

‘to mix’

competing

antecello

‘to surpass’

praecello

‘to surpass’

praesto

‘to excel’

supero

‘to surpass’

vinco

‘to overcome’

adaequo

‘to equal’

changing

muto ‘to change’

commuto

‘to exchange’

Examples of these subclasses are (a)–(h). However, several of these verbs are found with other case and/or preposition patterns as well, as will be shown. This use of the ablative is usually called the ablativus instrumenti, just like the use of the ablative in instrument adjuncts (see § 10.53). Whereas with some verbs the semantic relation of the third argument is instrument-like, with others this is less evident. The difference between the adjunct and the argument is proved by an example such as (f) where they co-occur in the same clause (quī [ablative] and anima, respectively).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(p.147) (c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Verbs of supplying with (and antonyms): Scio atque in cogitando maerore augeor…(Pl. St. 55);…ut cernat duplici decore cumulatam domum. (Cic. Att. 12.5.1);…(domum) auro ebore instructam regifice. (Enn. scen. 96V = 91J); PLOSTRABUBUS IUMENTEISVE IUNCTA…(CIL I2.593.67 (Lex. Iul. Munic., Rome, 46 BC)); Crotoniatae quondam…templum Iunonis, quod religiosissime colebant, egregiis picturis locupletare voluerunt. (Cic. Inv. 2.1); Caecilius, avunculus tuus, a P. Vario cum magna pecunia fraudaretur, agere coepit…(Cic. Att. 1.1.3); Potestas erat isti homini integro atque innocenti data ut, in Apronium cum animum advertisset, sese gravissima levaret infamia. (Cic. Ver. 3.140); Quin tu labore liberas te atque istam imponis in me? (Pl. As. 659);…per eorum edicta qui mea pericula non modo suo praesidio sed etiam vestra deprecatione nudarunt. (Cic. Red. Sen. 31); Nunc ibo ad forum atque onerabo meis praeceptis Simiam…(Pl. Ps. 764); Proletarius publicitus scutisque feroque / ornatur ferro…. (Enn. Ann. 183–4V=170–1S); Composita est fallacia / ut eo (sc. auro) me privent atque inter se dividant. (Pl. Poen. 774–5); Quae hic erant curares, quom ego vos curis solvi ceteris. (Ter. Hec. 230); …Armeniique et cereolis prunisque Damasci / stipantur calathi et pomis…(Col. 10.404–5); Adibo hunc…/…itaque tondebo auro usque ad vivam cutem. (Pl. Bac. 241–2); Tuque o Minoa venumdata, Scylla, figura, / tonde[n]s purpurea regna paterna coma. (Prop. 3.19.21–2—NB: much discussed passage);

Verbs of teaching: Atque idem tamen stuprorum et scelerum exercitatione (NB: cause argument) adsuefactus frigore et fame et siti et vigiliis perferendis fortis ab istis praedicabatur…(Cic. Catil. 2.9); Quis Dionem Syracosium doctrinis omnibus expolivit? Non Plato? (Cic. de Orat. 3.139); Quibus ille studiis ab ineunte aetate se (p.148) inbuerat … (Cic. Deiot. 28);…facile declaratur utrum, is qui dicat,…an ad dicendum omnibus ingenuis artibus instructus accesserit. (Cic. de Orat. 1.73);

Verbs of filling: Quarum (sc. fossarum) interioremaqua ex flumine derivata complevit. (Caes. Gal. 7.72.3); Quae nisi erunt semper plena, ego te implebo flagris. (Pl. Cas. 123); Deinde pernam ponito, cutis deosum spectet, sale obruito totam. (Cato Agr. 162.1); Meministis tum, iudices, corporibus civium Tiberim compleri, cloacas refarciri…(Cic. Sest. 77);…ut…meam domum refertam viris bonis per amicos suos complerent proscriptionis metu…(Cic. Dom. 55); Utraque autem ex minutissimis sunt instruenda, uti materia ex calce et harena crebriter parietes satiati diutius contineantur. (Vitr. 2.8.2);

Verbs of mixing: Oh, lutum lenonium, / commixtum caeno sterculinum publicum…(Pl. Per. 406–7); Matrum in liberos, virorum in uxores scelera cernitis, crudelitate mixtas libidines videtis inmanis. (Cic. Scaur. 13);…permisceto lentim aceto laserpiciato et ponito in sole. (Cato Agr. 116);

Verbs of competing: Quos (sc. Remos—subject) quod adaequare (sc. Haeduos) apud Caesarem gratia intellegebatur…(Caes. Gal. 6.12.7); An ad inferiores, qui his omnibus rebus antecelluntur. (Rhet. Her. 2.48); Simul forma, factis, eloquentia, dignitate, acrimonia, confidentia pariter praecellebat…(Quad. hist. 8);…et coniunx Germanici Agrippina fecunditate ac fama Liviam, uxorem Drusi, praecellebat. (Tac. Ann. 2.43.6);…propterea quod tunc herba ruscida meridianam, quae est aridior, iucunditate praestat. (Var. R. 2.2.10);…qui omnes homines supero [atque] antideo cruciabilitatibus animi. (Pl. Cist. 205);…vicistis cocleam tarditudine. (Pl. Poen. 532);

Verbs of changing: Et tandem superis miserantibus ambo alite mutantur. (Ov. Met. 11.741–2);

With several of these verb classes alternative three-place patterns are found as well (see §§ 4.54–4.58). Many of these verbs are also found with a two-place frame. When an instrument or means satellite is added to such a two-place frame, the resulting utterance contains both an accusative and an ablative (or nominative and ablative in the passive). This is the case with et bile et pituita in (i). Vomitus is the product of ‘mixing’, and bile and pituita are the ingredients used for that mixture. An alternative for the ablative is a prepositional expression with ex (see § 10.55). Ablatival third arguments and ablatival satellites are not always systematically distinguished in the scholarly literature. This has even elicited a conjecture such as that found in (j), where the third argument iure civili is in fact replaced by a satellite in iure civili indicating the domain within which the training of orators (a two-place pattern) takes place.

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

(p.149) 4.54 Alternative patterns for verbs of supplying with

In addition to the accusative + ablative pattern, many verbs of supplying with and their antonyms occur with an alternative accusative + dative pattern. Examples of the two patterns with the verbs onero and fraudo are (a)–(b) and (c)–(d), respectively. (For occasional instances—in poetry and Late Latin—of a double accusative, see § 4.75.)

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

Some of the verbs of depriving are also found with an accusative + genitive pattern (see also § 4.55 on verbs of filling). They are also regularly found with an accusative + prepositional phrase pattern, with the separative prepositions ab, de, and ex. This is illustrated in (e)–(i) by the verbs levo and libero. (For factors determining the choice between the ablatival and prepositional expressions in these three-place frames, see § 12.28.)

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(p.150) The ablatives with verbs like libero and verbs like arceo are both called ablativus separativus. The ‘separation’, however, occurs in opposite directions. In this Syntax libero is treated as an antonym of e.g. instruo. For two-place verbs and adjectives of the same meaning class governing the ablative, see § 4.29. Verbs denoting separation as such are dealt with in § 4.83. Note that in its literal meaning (‘to set free from’) libero can be regarded as a separation verb, as in (j).

(j) Verb frames

Appendix: In Augustan poetry and in later authors the use of the genitive was extended, as in (k), according to some scholars in imitation of Greek (e.g. καθαίρω‎), but analogy with adjectives governing the genitive (§ 4.102) is more likely.79 See also § 4.29.

(k) Verb frames

4.55 Alternative patterns for verbs of filling

With verbs of filling, the pattern accusative + genitive occurs as well, on the analogy of adjectives like plenus ‘full’ (see § 4.101). Examples are (a) and (b). There are also occasional double accusative patterns, as in (c) (further details in § 4.53).80

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

Supplement:…ea omnia fecit palam / parasitus, qui me complevit flagiti et formidinis…(Pl. Men. 901–2); Haec res vitae me, soror, saturant…(Pl. St. 18);81

4.56 Alternative patterns for verbs of mixing

With verbs of mixing, the accusative + dative pattern is found as well. It is common in poetry from Catullus onwards (the first instance being (a)—compare (b) for the reverse expression in Varro), but it is also used by later prose authors.82 Just like (p.151) iungo4.52), misceo has another frame with an associative cum-expression (ex. c)—see § 4.69—as well as a two-place frame with two or more coordinated accusative objects (or passive counterparts), as in the ablative absolute clause mixtaaqua in (d).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

4.57 Alternative patterns for verbs of surpassing

For verbs of surpassing there is an alternative dative + ablative pattern, as in (a) and (b).83 This is the only pattern with the verb cedo ‘to be inferior to’, as in (c). (For prepositional position in space adjuncts with these verbs, see § 10.5.)

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

4.58 Alternative patterns for verbs of changing

With verbs of changing, the entity resulting from the change may also be expressed in an in + accusative prepositional phrase (abstract direction), as in (a), or in a cum prepositional phrase (associative) (see § 4.69).84

(p.152) (a) Verb frames

4.59 Factors determining the choice between the accusative + dative case pattern and the accusative + ablative case pattern

For a number of verbs like dono ‘to present’ and circumdo ‘to surround’ there are enough examples of both the accusative + dative pattern and the accusative + ablative pattern to detect a number of factors that seem to be involved in the choice between the two patterns. Typical examples of the verb dono are (a)–(c).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

The two patterns, which are not synonymous semantically, seem to allow the same types of constituent and to be interchangeable in this respect. However, the accusative + dative pattern is preferred if the thing given is either a neuter pronoun or adjective or a clause. The accusative + ablative pattern is preferred if the accusative NP denotes a human being, and, as such, is more often found in the passive than the other pattern. For pragmatic factors influencing the choice of the patterns, see § 5.10. In the case of dono, there is also a marked diachronic change, with the accusative + dative pattern strongly increasing.85 Another difference is that the ablative in the accusative + ablative pattern can be omitted less easily than the dative in the accusative + dative pattern.

4.60 The use of the accusative and ablative with facio (and its counterpart fio)

In questions of the type quid faciam? ‘what shall I do?’ and quid fiet? ‘what is going to happen?’ a third constituent can be used in the ablative. This constituent can be regarded as an instrumental adjunct (see § 10.54, Appendix), but from the context it (p.153) becomes clear that it is in some way affected by what is being done to it. In (a) sua is continued in the next sentence as subject of the passive forms dicetur and abducetur, and in (b), te is continued as subject of confugies. The whole combination thus gives the impression of a three-place frame. An alternative expression is the use of a prepositional phrase with de, as in (c). Quid faciam and quid fiet may also be combined with a beneficiary adjunct in the dative, as in (d).86

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

Supplement:

Quid facies ea? / # Intro rumpam recta in aedis. (Pl. Mil. 459–60); Quid illa faciemus concubina quae domi est? (Pl. Mil. 973); Quid factum est eo? / # Comesum, expotum; exunctum; elotum in balineis…(Pl. Trin. 405–6); Sed quid Tulliola mea fiet? (Cic. Fam. 14.4.3);

4.61 Three-place verbs with an accusative + genitive case pattern (and a few alternatives)

4.62 Three-place judicial verbs

Genitive third arguments with three-place judicial verbs and expressions denote the matter involved in the procedure, notably the charge (or crime) of which one is accused (or freed) or the penalty to which one is condemned. With some verbs both the charge and the penalty patterns are possible (e.g. with the verb condemno ‘to condemn’). This use of the genitive is often called genetivus criminis or genetivus forensis. Charge and penalty arguments are discussed in separate sections.

It should be noted that this semantic field is highly idiomatic and that alternative productive expressions are often available. When indicating the charge, for example, (p.154) alternative prepositional expressions are available, such as those with de ‘about’, ‘concerning’, in ‘in the matter of’, but there are also instrumental adjuncts or alternative valency frames (see § 4.63). When the penalty is indicated, alternative expressions may be used as well (see § 4.64). It is no surprise that this accusative + genitive pattern gradually disappeared. It is almost absent from our texts from the first half of the fourth century AD onwards.87

4.63 Three-place judicial verbs with a charge argument in the genitive

Genitive charge arguments are found with verbs and expressions of accusing (and its antonym acquitting), catching, as in (c), involving in crime, and related expressions. A survey of the verbs involved is given in Table 4.14.88

Table 4.14 Three-place judicial verbs governing the genitive

accusing

accuso

‘to accuse’

ago

‘to bring an accusation’

arcesso

‘to arraign’

insimulo

‘to charge’

postulo

‘to summon before a court’

catching

and convicting

arguo

‘to charge’

coarguo

‘to prove guilty’

condemno

‘to condemn’

convinco

‘to convict’

damno

‘to condemn’

absolvo

‘to acquit’

libero

‘to release’

prehendo

‘to catch’

involving

in crime

adligo

‘to implicate’

Examples of the verbs involved are (a)–(d).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(p.155) Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

…quom ipse (Aeschines) a Demosthene esset capitis accusatus…(Cic. Opt. Gen. 21); Itaque rex iussit cum his agi furti condemnatosque cum ignominia dimisit…(Vitr. 7.pr.7);…an furti agendum sit, quaeritur. (Paul. dig. 13.6.22); Cum omnes studio eius subitam fluminis magnitudinem scirent fuisse inpedimento, tamen quidam capitis arcesserunt. (Cic. Inv. 2.97);…cum furtorum arcesseretur et populatae provinciae…(Amm. 17.4.5); Ita me probri, / stupri, dedecoris a viro argutam meo! (Pl. Am. 882–3); Nunc si quem Cn. Lentuli aut L. Gelli libertus furti condemnarit…(Cic. Clu. 120); Minitari aperte, capitis dicturum diem. (Lucil. 783);…pro Tigillino etiam saevitiae populum edicto increpuit. (Suet. Gal. 15.2); Atque insimulabit eam probri. (Pl. Am. 477);…dum Capitonem repetundarum interrogant. (Tac. Ann. 16.21.3); Senatus nec liberavit eius culpae regem neque arguit. (Liv. 41.19.6); Postulavit etiam L. Afranium proditionis…(Caes. Civ. 3.83.2); Quare si accusare eam adulterii coeperit vel alio crimine postulare…(Ulp. dig. 24.2.11.2);…Myrmex vinculis obrutus, non quidem coram noxae prehensus, conscientia tamen pessima permixtus…(Apul. Met. 9.21.1);…non tamen rei publicae laesae tenetur sed caedis. (Sen. Con. 10.4.11);

Appendix: There is a superficial resemblance between reason adjuncts and charge arguments (see § 10.88, note), which may explain the genitive in the odd instance (e). It may also be explained as a Graecism (so Hijmans et al. ad loc.).

(e) Verb frames

With some of the verbs involved, especially when the nouns are not necessarily legal idioms, the ablative is more common, which can be explained by the fact that the ablative is the regular marker of means and instrument adjuncts. An example is (f). Prepositional expressions are also widely used, especially with de, as in (g). There is no alternative for de vi, as in (h). It is not likely that the use of in ‘in’ found in (i) is synonymous with a genitive expression. In Late Latin, however, in is used that way, as in (j).89

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

(p.156) (i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

…etiam scelere convictos non nisi ad opus damnari praeceperat. (Suet. Nero 31.3); Quo scelere damnatus in eam urbem redi<i>t armis, ex qua excesserat legibus. (Cic. Phil. 13.27); Et Ancharius Priscus Caesium Cordum pro consule Cretae postulaverat repetundis…(Tac. Ann. 3.38.1—NB: see Woodman and Martin ad loc.);

4.64 Three-place judicial verbs with a penalty argument in the genitive (or ablative)

Penalty arguments denote the penalty or the punishment to which one is condemned. Penalty arguments resemble means and instrument adjuncts, found with a verb such as multo ‘to punish’. The genitive is found from Early Latin onwards and is regular for general indications of the amount of money involved, e.g. tanti ‘so great’, quanti ‘how great’, minoris ‘a smaller fine’, dupli ‘a double fine’. Examples are (a) and (b). Less clear is the combination of damno ‘to condemn’ and similar verbs with capitis, as in (c), which is usually interpreted as ‘to condemn someone to the loss of civil rights’ but might be interpreted also as ‘to condemn someone on the charge of a capital offence’. Ablative expressions are regularly used to indicate the type of penalty, as in (d).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(p.157) Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Genitive: Nam cum bis pecunia anquisisset, tertio capitis se anquirere diceret, tribuni plebis appellati collegae negarunt se in mora esse quominus, quod ei more maiorum permissum esset, seu legibus seu moribus mallet, anquireret quoad vel capitis vel pecuniae iudicasset privato. (Liv. 26.3.7–8); Maiores nostri sic habuerunt et ita in legibus posiverunt. Furem dupli condemnari, f[o]eneratorem quadrupli. (Cato Agr. pr. 1); Nympho…condemnatur. Quanti fortasse quaeritis. Nulla erat edicti poena certa. Frumenti omnis eius quod in areis esset. (Cic. Ver. 3.54);…quamvis non maioris peculii, quam penes se est, condemnari debeat. (Ulp. dig. 15.1.32); Quid sit quod…Q. Calidius damnatus dixerit minoris HS triciens praetorium hominem honeste non posse damnari. (Cic. Ver. 38); Unam fore tabellam qui liberandos omni periculo censerent, alteram qui capitis damnarent, tertiam qui pecunia multarent. (Caes. Civ. 3.83.4);…damnatusque longi / Sisyphus Aeolides laboris. (Hor. Carm. 2.14.19–20); Cuius damnatus voti cum victor Romam revertisset, dictatura se abdicavit. (Liv. 7.28.4); Egone ut illam mulierem / capitis non perdam? (Pl. Bac. 489–90);

Ablative:…tu aut per arbitrum restituas aut sponsione condemneris necesse est. (Cic. Tul. 48);…non modo sunt reprehendendi, sed etiam, quia impio more vixerunt, poena condemnandi. (Vitr. 7.pr.3); Frusinates tertia parte agri damnati…(Liv. 10.1.3); Omne humanum genus, quodque est quodque erit, morte damnatum est. (Sen. Ep. 71.15); Isdem diebus Antonius Flamma <accusantibus> Cyrenensibus damnatur lege repetundarum et exilio ob saevitiam. (Tac. Hist. 4.45.2);

Appendix 1: From Lucretius onwards with certain verbs (e.g. damno ‘to condemn’), the dative case and prepositional expressions with ad or in ‘to’ are used, as with three-place verbs like destino ‘to designate’. Examples are (e)–(g).

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

The accusative is found in jurists. It must be regarded as an accusative argument (and not an adjunct), formed on the analogy of the double accusative with verbs of demanding–see § 4.36). An example is (h).

(h) Verb frames

(p.158) 4.65 Three-place verbs of valuing governing a value argument in the genitive or ablative

Value arguments denote the value of the entity that functions as the object (or subject in the passive) of verbs of valuing such as aestimo ‘to value’, ‘to assess’ and verbs of opinion such as habeo, facio (fio), and duco ‘to consider’, as well as a number of other less frequent verbs such as censeo ‘to assess’, existimo ‘to value’, iudico ‘to judge of’, pendo ‘to place a value upon’, as in (a) and (b). The value constituents are usually in the genitive when the value is expressed in a general way, such as magni ‘highly’ and parvi ‘of little value’. The genitive is also used idiomatically with nouns denoting a small or insignificant entity such as flocci ‘of the smallest value’ in (c). Additionally, it is used to mark the value argument with sum ‘to be worth’ (see § 4.32). On the other hand, when the value is expressed in a more specific way, the ablative is common, as viginti minis in (d) and levi momento in (e). However, the ablative is found in general value indications as well, from the Classical period onwards, especially with the verb aestimo, on the analogy of adjuncts of price (see § 10.57), as in (f).90 A prepositional phrase with pro can be used as well, as in (g).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(p.159) (f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Genitives: Substantival adjectives of quantity and size: Per enim magni aestimo tibi firmitudinem animi nostri et factum nostrum probari. (Cic. Att. 10.1.1); Arbitrum…hoc minoris partem (sc. fundi) aestimare debere…(Ulp. dig. 10.3.6.8);…omnia pericula mortis atque exili parvi esse ducenda…(Cic. Arch. 14); Verum ecastor / ut multi fecit ita probe curavit Plesidippus. (Pl. Rud. 380–1); Tertius vero ille finis deterrumus, ut quanti quisque se ipse faciat, tanti fiat ab amicis. (Cic. Amic. 59); Itaque cum arbitri communium parietum sumuntur, non aestimant eos quanti facti fuerint…(Vitr. 2.8.8); Si quid ingenui sanguinis habes, non pluris illum facies quam scortum. (Petr. 113.11); Tanti namque poena finita est. (V. Max. 5.3.2a);…aliquid corpore pluris habe! (Ov. Ars 2.144);

Nouns and pronouns:…rumoresque senum severiorum / omnes unius aestimemus assis. (Catul. 5.2–3); Perii, hoc servom meum non nauci facere esse ausum. (Pl. Bac. 1102); Quin nihili facio. (Pl. Cas. 605);…huius non faciam. ((‘snapping his fingers’, Barsby) Ter. Ad. 163);…matrem meam dupundii non facio. (Petr. 58.4 (a freedman speaking)); Non habeo denique nauci Marsum augurem…(Cic. Div. 1.132); Nam ut proximus quisque Britannico neque fas neque fidem pensi haberet, olim provisum erat. (Tac. Ann. 13.15.3);…habeo pensi…(Symm. Ep. 1.15.3); Invidere omnes mihi, / mordere clanculum. Ego non flocci pendere. (Ter. Eu. 410–11);

Descriptive adjectives: Quicquid attulerit, boni consulas (Pl. Truc. 429); Ceterum equidem istuc, Chremes, / aequi bonique facio. (Ter. Hau. 787–8); Tranquillissimus autem animus meus, qui totum istuc aequi boni facit…(Cic. Att. 7.7.4); Boni autem consulere nostrum laborem vel propter hoc aecum est, quod…(Quint. Inst. 6.pr.16);

Ablative: Substantival adjectives of quantity and size: Stultissimus quisque posthac minimo aestumabit. (Cic. Ver. 3.221); Ne ista gloriosa sapientia non magno aestimanda est, siquidem non multum differt ab insania. (Cic. Tusc. 3.8);…quanto valere potest, tanto aestimabitur. (Vulg. Levit. 27.17);

Nouns and pronouns:…modios singulos cum aratoribus ternis denariis aestimavit. (Cic. Ver. 3.188);…nec quia bonum sit valere, sed quia sit non nihilo aestimandum…(Cic. Fin. 4.62); Magno ubique pretio virtus aestimatur. (V. Max. 5.4.1); Numquam enim si denariis quadringentis Cupidinem illum putasset…(Cic. Ver. 4.13);

Appendix: With aestimo the value can also be expressed by adverbs. Examples are (h) and (i).

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(p.160) 4.66 Three-place verbs of reminding with a genitive third argument

With three-place verbs of reminding, the entity one is reminded of is usually expressed by a prepositional phrase with de ‘about’. However, three-place commonefacio is only found with the genitive (this may be chance), as with two-place verbs of remembering (see § 4.36), and the other verbs have the genitive as an alternative, though this is rare in Cicero and Caesar. The following verbs and expressions belong to this semantic class.

Table 4.15 Three-place verbs of reminding

commoneo

‘to remind’

certiorem facio

‘to inform’

commonefacio

‘to remind’

admoneo

‘to give a reminder of’

moneo

‘to bring to the notice of’

Examples are (a)–(e).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Admonebat alium egestatis, alium cupiditatis suae, compluris periculi aut ignominiae, multos victoriae Sullanae…(Sal. Cat. 21.4); Sed ut parva sint haec, pueri docentur adhuc et grammaticos officii sui commonemus. (Quint. Inst. 1.5.7); Quam nunc nemo est in Sicilia quin habeat, quin legat, quin tui sceleris et crudelitatis ex illa oratione commonefiat. (Cic. Ver. 5.112);…factorumque fortium singulos monens animabat lenibus verbis…(Amm. 20.4.12);…utinam tui consili certior factus essem. (Cic. Att. 8.11D.5);

(p.161) Prepositional alternatives: Quantulum istud est, de quo aediles admonent. (Tac. Ann. 3.54.4);…de his te, si qui me forte locus admonuerit, commonebo. (Cic. de Orat. 3.47);…post discidium optimatium, de quo ipso nunc monemur…(Cic. Har. 45); Ubi de eius adventu Helvetii certiores facti sunt…(Caes. Gal. 1.7.3);

4.67 Three-place verbs with a third argument in an apparent genitive case

Apparent genitive forms are shown in (a) and (b). Most common is the combination of lucri with facio, sometimes written as one word. The genitive is usually described as a genitive of the rubric (for which see § 11.57) but is different in several respects. It is also unattractive to regard these expressions as object complements.91 In that case one would expect subject complement counterparts with the verb sum, but they do not seem to exist. Since these expressions lack the usual productive characteristics of nouns in the genitive they must be regarded as idioms outside the case system.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

Supplement:

Si nunc me suspendam, meam operam luserim / et praeter operam restim sumpti fecerim…(Pl. Cas. 424–5); Iam vero ab isto omnem illam ex aerario pecuniam…lucri factam videtis. (Cic. Ver. 3.176); Jesus…salvam facturus animam pro nomine eius amissam, perditurus autem de contrario adversus nomen eius lucri habitam. (Tert. Cor. 11.5);

4.68 Three-place verbs with a prepositional third argument

Two types of three-place verbs with a prepositional third argument are discussed in this section. For three-place verbs with a space argument see § 4.80.

4.69 Three-place verbs with an associative cum-prepositional argument

A selection of three-place verbs that govern an associative cum-prepositional phrase is given in Table 4.16.92

(p.162)

Table 4.16 Three-place verbs with an associative argument

sharing and dividing

communico

‘to share’

participo

‘to make partake of’

dispertio

‘to distribute’

divido

‘to divide’

impertio

‘to impart’

exchanging

commuto

‘to interchange’

muto

‘to exchange’

permuto

‘to exchange’

bringing together

and making compatible

adaequo

‘to balance, make equal’

comparo

‘to align’

compen-

so

‘to equalize, to balance’

congrego

‘to assemble’

coniun-

go

‘to unite’

multi-

plico

‘to multiply, to increase’

socio

‘to asso-

ciate’

tempero

‘to mingle, to combine’

Examples are (a)–(e). Some verbs that normally require an associative cum-prepositional phrase also occur with a dative recipient constituent, as in (f). The use of the dative increases in poetry and in later Latin. An example of the verb communico ‘to share’ is (g).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Nonne compensavit cum uno versiculo tot mea volumina laudum suarum? (Cic. Pis. 75); Veluti pecunia cum pecunia conpensatur, triticum cum tritico, vinum cum vino…(Gaius Inst. 4.66); Cave siris cum filia / mea copulari hanc nec conspicere. (Pl. Epid. (p.163) 400–1);…mihi tecum ita dispertitum officium fuisse…(Cic. Fam. 5.2.1);…se cum Bruto…iuncturum vires…(Vell. 2.65.1);…malumque ut eius cum tuo misceres malo. (Pl. Trin. 122);…et cum his ansis ferreis et plumbo frontes vinctae sint. (Vitr. 2.8.4);

Appendix: Different is the use of the cum-phrase in (h), where it rather marks the result, in a way comparable with in expressions.93

(h) Verb frames

4.70 Three-place verbs of sprinkling with both an accusative + prepositional phrase pattern and an accusative + ablative pattern

With verbs like spargo ‘to sprinkle’ and lino ‘to smear’, the object may be either the material sprinkled on a certain surface, as in (a), or the surface that is sprinkled with a certain material, as in (b). There is also a two-place frame with the material as the subject, as in (c). A dative is also found—especially in later periods—instead of the prepositional expression. An example with the verb lino is (d).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

4.71 Three-place verbs with an accusative + accusative (double accusative) pattern

Several classes of three-place verbs that govern two nouns or noun phrases in the accusative (the so-called DOUBLE ACCUSATIVE construction) can be distinguished. One class comprises verbs of teaching and asking, such as doceo ‘to teach’ and rogo ‘to ask for’ and ‘to ask’. A second class are compounds formed with a preverb that is etymologically related to a preposition governing an accusative (a case of (p.164) bitransitivization through preverbalization), such as transmitto ‘to send across’. These two classes have in common that, when the verb is passivized, only the second argument can become subject of the passive verb, while the third remains in the accusative case. Finally, a small class is formed by verbs with an incorporated object, such as animum advertere ‘to direct one’s attention’. For the type of three-place verbs with which two accusative nouns or noun phrases can be used (in the active), but where in the case of passivization both accusatives become nominatives, see § 4.87.

4.72 Verbs of teaching, asking, etc.

Verbs of teaching, asking, etc. governing a so-called double accusative have two nominal arguments: one is a noun or noun phrase that usually refers to a human being (the object), while the other usually refers to a non-human entity. An illustrative selection of the verbs involved is given in Table 4.17.

Table 4.17 Three-place verbs governing a double accusative

teaching

doceo

‘to teach’

edoceo

‘to educate’

dedoceo

‘to cause to unlearn’

asking for

flagito

‘to demand’

exoro

‘to prevail upon’

oro

‘to entreat’

posco

‘to beg’

postulo

‘to request’

reposco

‘to demand back’

rogo

‘to ask for’

asking

consulo

‘to consult’

interrogo

‘to interrogate’

percontor

‘to inquire’

perrogo

‘to question’

rogo

‘to ask’

hiding

celo

‘to conceal’

Examples of the double accusative verbs rogo (‘to ask for’) and doceo (‘to teach’) are (a)–(d). Note in (d) the parallelism of the nominal argument litteras and the prolative infinitive natare. If these verbs are in the passive, only one of the two accusative constituents—usually the (human) object—can become subject of the clause. The second one remains in the accusative case. Examples are (e) and (f). However, instances such as these, in which the passive occurs with a third argument in the accusative, are relatively rare. For a passive instance with a clause as the third argument, see (g).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(p.165) (c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames94

(g) Verb frames

When only the thing taught or asked is expressed, this single object constituent has a passive subject counterpart, as in (h).

(h) Verb frames

The number of verbs with which this double accusative construction is statistically predominant, and which are, moreover, also frequent in absolute numbers, is very small. Rogo and doceo are the most common in this respect. Double accusative expressions are relatively frequent in Early Latin. In Late Latin, the expression is found with some frequency as an alternative for other three-place patterns. In the Classical period, the second accusative is very often a neuter pronoun or adjective. The double accusative pattern is extended to verbs with a related meaning in poetical style, which tends to avoid prepositional expressions.95

Doceo can be regarded as the causative counterpart of disco, which has a second argument in the accusative.

4.73 The double accusative with verbs of asking

The most common double accusative verb of asking is rogo ‘to ask for’ and ‘to ask’. The double accusative pattern with rogo and interrogo ‘to interrogate’ is found especially in the expression aliquem sententiam rogare ‘to ask someone’s opinion’, with a neuter pronoun, or with an indirect question clause. There are a few examples (p.166) with the verbs perrogo ‘to ask for in turn’, consulo ‘to consult about’, and percontor ‘to interrogate’. Examples are (a) and (b).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

…nec te id consulo. (Cic. Att. 7.20.2); Sunt quae te volumus percontari…(Pl. Ps. 462); Roga hoc idem Epicurum. (Cic. Tusc. 2.28);…te hoc beneficium rogo. (Ant. Att. 14.13A.3);…factum senatus consultum ut duoviros aediles…dictator populum rogaret (Liv. 6.42.14);

Passive: Hannibal nominatim interrogatus sententiam…(Liv. 36.7.1); Militem…Graece testimonium interrogatum nisi Latine respondere vetuit. (Suet. Tib. 71); Quisquis alimenta a mendico rogatus est…(Sen. Con. 1.1.10); Mirari soleo, cum video aliquos tempus petentes et eos qui rogantur facillimos. (Sen. Dial. 10.8.1);

With other verbs of requesting the double accusative is used with varying frequency. With flagito ‘to ask urgently’ and with oro ‘to beseech’, the number of instances in which both the person who is asked and the entity asked for are expressed is relatively small. With these verbs the double accusative and the alternative prepositional expression seem to be equally frequent. The verbs posco ‘to ask for insistently’ and postulo ‘to demand’ are frequently found with both entities expressed, but differ in the use of the double accusative: it is the normal expression with posco (with a prepositional alternative increasing in Late Latin) and the exception with postulo. The use of the double accusative is extended to peto and a few other two-place verbs. In (very) Late Latin, verbs of asking are treated as communication verbs with an addressee in the dative.96

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Quod deos inmortales inter nuncupanda vota expoposci, eius me conpotem voti vos facere potestis…(Liv. 7.40.5);…me frumentum flagitabant. (Cic. Dom. 14);…idqueparentis suos liberi orabant…(Cic. Ver. 5.119); Ceterum quantum lubet me poscitote aurum. Ego dabo. ( Pl. Bac. 703);…magistratum Sicyonium nummos poposcit (Cic. Ver. 1.44); Orationes autem me duas postulas. (Cic. Att. 2.7.1—formerly emended into a me); Aulam auri, inquam, te reposco…(Pl. Aul. 763);

Extension: Illud te (<a> te edd.) peto (Dolab. Fam. 9.9.2); NB: Haec eadem, Aenea, terram, mare, sidera iuro / Latonaeque genus duplex Ianumque bifrontem / vimque deum infernam et duri sacraria Ditis. (Verg. A. 12.197–9—see Tarrant ad loc.; for the Graecism iuro + accusative object instead of per, see Mayer (1999: 162–3));

(p.167) Passive: Petreius atque Afranius cum stipendium ab legionibus…flagitarentur…(Caes. Civ. 1.87.3—NB: the manuscripts have flagitaretur);…segetes alimentaque debita dives / poscebatur humus…(Ov. Met. 1.137);…margaritam…postularis…(Hier. Ep. 10.3.2);

Alternative expressions: Duobus episcopis suppliciter exorat ut…seditionem…conpraemerent. (Greg. T. Hist. 3.36); Postulatur a te…vel flagitaturhistoria (Cic. Leg. 1.5);

In the frame of rogo the entity that is the source, semantically speaking, is expressed in the accusative case and behaves like a patient object, since it can become the subject in the passive. A more transparent way of expressing this is with a source adjunct marked by the preposition ab ‘from’ (rarely de or ex) + ablative. This alternative, which is occasionally found with rogo itself, is the normal way of expressing the source with a number of two-place verbs of requesting, such as peto ‘to request’ and quaero ‘to inquire’ and its compounds, which are by far the most common verbs with this meaning. For two-place rogo sententiam, with the source expressed, see (c). For the passive (without a source), see (d). For peto and quaero with a source expression, see (e) and (f).

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

4.74 The double accusative with verbs of teaching

Just like rogo, doceo ‘to teach’ and edoceo ‘to instruct thoroughly’ have both a two-place and a three-place pattern. Examples of the three-place pattern of doceo are given in the introduction to this section. Examples of the two two-place frames are (a) and (b). (Two-place doceo and edoceo can also be combined with a respect adjunct with the preposition de; see § 10.94.)

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(p.168) Other verbs such as erudio and instituo almost exclusively take the accusative for the patient receiving the teaching and the ablative for the thing taught, thus behaving as verbs of supplying with their typical case pattern (see § 4.53). However, an occasional extension of the double accusative pattern to these and other verbs can be found in poetry and in Late Latin. Examples are (c) and (d). Conversely, doceo is occasionally found with the accusative + ablative pattern as well, as in (e).

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames97

Supplement:

Quid nunc telitteras doceam? (Cic. Pis. 73); Nunc aliam citharam me mea Musa docet. (Prop. 2.10.10); (Catilina) iuventutemmala facinora edocebat (Sal. Cat. 16.1);

Extension:ignaros instruo verum. (Comm. Instr. 1.1.9);

Passive: Motus doceri gaudet Ionicos / matura virgo…(Hor. Carm. 3.6.21);…omnis militiae artes edoctus fuerat. (Liv. 25.37.3);…DOCTA·ERODITA·OMNES·ARTES·VIRGO…(CIL I2.1214.2 (Rome, c.65 BC));

Alternative expressions: Object in the ablative: Litteris Graecis Latinis docta…(Sal. Cat. 25.2);

NB: Object in the genitive: destinavi illum artificii (artificium cj. Scheffer) docere…(Petr. 46.7 (Echion speaking));…iuris sui edoctus. (Ulp. dig. 11.1.11.12);98

With doceo, the entity taught can be an accusative and infinitive clause (see § 15.97).

4.75 Other three-place verbs governing two accusative arguments

Celo as a two-place verb means either ‘to keep (something) secret’ or ‘to keep (someone) in ignorance’. In the latter meaning, the thing concealed may be expressed as a respect adjunct with a prepositional phrase introduced by de ‘about’. The number of double accusative expressions is small.

(a) Verb frames

(p.169) (b) Verb frames

Passive: Nosne hoc celatos tamdiu! (Ter. Hec. 645);

Exceptional alternative passive: Quor haec…/ celata me sunt? (Pl. Ps. 490–1);

Alternative expressions: Credo celatum esse Cassium de Sulla uno. (Cic. Sul. 39);99

The use of volo ‘to want’ with a personal object and a neuter pronoun as the second object is an idiom that is almost confined to Plautus and Terence, as in (c).

(c) Verb frames

Supplement:

Si quid te volam, / ubi eris? (Pl. As. 109–10); Numquid me vis ceterum? (Pl. Epid. 512); Nisi quid me aliud vis, Philto, respondi tibi. (Pl. Trin. 458); Numquid, Geta, aliud me vis? # Ut bene sit tibi. (Ter. Ph. 151); Siquid ille se velit…(Caes. Gal. 1.34.2);

There are a few examples of verbs of depriving with a double accusative throughout the history of Latin (with some extension in poetry and Late Latin): eludo ‘to obtain by trickery from’, expungo ‘to extort’, fraudo ‘to cheat’, defraudo and defrudo ‘to cheat out of’, spolio ‘to rob’, despolio ‘to plunder’, and possibly also exuo ‘to take off’. The regular pattern with these verbs is accusative + ablative (see § 4.53). Examples are (d)–(f).100

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

Supplement:

…si quid aliquem defraudavi, reddo quadruplum. (Vulg. Luc. 19.8);…ut mihi dicas unde illum habeas anulum, / quem parasitus hic te elusit. (Pl. Cur. 629–30);…cum…Pudentilla de suo quin­quaginta milia nummum populum [<in> populum edd.] expunxisset…(Apul. Apol. 87);…et exue Aaron stolam eius et indue Eleazar filium eius…(Vet. Lat. Num. 20.26);

The ‘supplying with’ verbs ‘to give (something) to (someone)’ are regularly found with the accusative + dative and the accusative + ablative patterns (see § 4.51). (p.170) The verb condono ‘to give (something) to (someone)’ is not attested with the accusative + ablative pattern. A few ‘mixed’ double accusative expressions occur from Early Latin onwards, as in (g). A few other verbs of supplying with are found as well, as in (h).

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

Supplement:

Egon pro hoc te nuntio quid [v.l. qui] donem? (Ter. Hec. 849);

Passive: Habeo alia multa quae nunc condonabitur (Ter. Eu. 17);

NB: Ablative and accusative parallel: CN·POMPEIUS SEX· F·IMPERATOR / VIRTUTIS·CAUSSA·TURMAM / SALLUITANAM·DONAVIT…CORNUCULO…ET·FAUMENIUM(= frumentum) / DUPLEX (CIL I2.709.col.4.1–7 (Rome, 89 BC));

4.76 Neuter pronouns and neuter forms of adjectives in the accusative

Double accusative constructions are common when neuter pronouns or neuter forms of adjectives are involved (see §§ 4.71–4.75). This preference operates on a larger scale with a number of verbs and complex expressions of, roughly, the following meanings: (i) three-place judicial verbs, which normally govern a genitive (see §§ 4.62–4.64), (ii) verbs of urging or inciting, which are often accompanied by a constituent indicating the purpose or effect of the summoning act (with nouns and noun phrases the prepositions ad or in are normal), and (iii) three-place verbs of depriving (see exx. (d)–(f) in the preceding section). Some of these verbs have a two-place frame in which either a person or a thing may be the object. The double accusative construction can be seen as a means of combining the two kinds of semantic relations to some extent. Examples are (a) and (b).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Accusative pronouns: Active: Illud accuso, non te sed illam…(Cic. Att. 13.22.5); Id unum ex iis qui sibi rem aperuisset arguere se paratam esse. (Liv. 26.12.17);…ille civis qui id cogit omnis…(Cic. Rep. 1.3); Nihil neque ante hoc tempus neque hoc ipso turbulentissimo die criminamini Sestium. (Cic. Sest. 77); Aliud quiddam maius (p.171) et ingenia me hortantur vestra et aetates. (Cic. de Orat. 3.97); Illud te…et oro…et hortor, ut…(Cic. Q.fr. 1.1.46);…hoc non voluntas me impulit. (Pl. Mer. 321);…id me insimulatam perperam falsum esse somniavi. (Pl. Mil. 392);…ted id monitum advento. (Pl. Aul. 145);…hoc volo monere te. (Pl. Ps. 915);…eos hoc moneo, desinant…(Cic. Catil. 2.20); Id te Iuppiter / prohibessit! (Pl. Ps. 13–14);

Passive:…non id prius decernere quod aliquando voluissent quam quod tum cogerentur. (Cic. Ver. 4.142);…id quod ipse insimuletur…(Rhet. Her. 2.4.6);…quorum nihil cogi posse dicuntur…Christiani…(Plin. Ep. 10.96.5);…in eo quod monebatur…(Cic. Ver. 2.97);…quae ab ea (sc.: natura) monemur…(Cic. Amic. 88); Iam illud non sunt admonendi…ut animadvertant…(Cic. Off. 2.68);

Exceptional nouns and noun phrases: Active:…mirum est, qui illi collubitum siet / meo viro sic me insimulare falso facinus tam malum. (Pl. Am. 858–9); NEVE EUM / COGITO NEVE IUS IURANDUM ADIGITO NEVE A/DIGI IUBETO… (CIL I2.594.29–30 (Lex Coloniae Ursonensis, Rome, 44 BC));

Passive:…facile cetera exiguntur mandanturque iusiurandum adactis…(Sen. Ep. 95.35);…ut moneatur semper servos homo officium suom…(Pl. St. 58);

Instances without a human object: Equidem pacem [ad pacem edd., cf. Ipse me Caesar ad pacem hortatur…Cic. Att. 7.21.3] hortari non desino. (Cic. Att. 7.14.3); Hortantibus denique quibusdam inediam et lenem exitum…(Tac. Ann. 11.3.2); Istuc facinus quod tu insimulas…(Pl. Am. 820);…ex iis quae Galli insimulabant…(Cic. Catil. 3.12);

4.77 The double accusative with compound verbs in Late Latin

Particularly in Late Latin101 (but starting as early as the archaizing author Apuleius and the Vetus Latina versions of the Bible), numerous compounds with circum, ex, in, ob, and per are occasionally found with two accusatives. This occurs most frequently with compounds meaning ‘moving an object or person to or away from another object or person’ or ‘covering or uncovering something or someone with something’, etc., where two perspectives are possible, with either one of the objects or persons involved expressed as object. The utterances that we find can be seen as a form of contamination, which in some cases may be due to ignorance, in other cases more or less consciously executed, as in (a), and inspired by earlier examples cited in the sections above. Simple verbs with such meanings are also occasionally used with two accusatives. Given the existence of a roughly common semantic denominator for these verbs, it is better not to explain the use of two accusatives as dependent on the preverbal elements (which in the case of ex is excluded anyway), that is, one should not analyse them in the same way as one does the verbs in the next section.

(a) Verb frames

(p.172) Supplement:

Muros alios novos circuit civitatem. (Anon. Vales. 12.71); Circumsperges eos aquam purificationis. (Vet. Lat. Num. 8.7—NB: Vulg. has aqua);…equi sudorem frontem [fronte det. edd. vet., fronde cj. Becichemus] curiose exfrico…(Apul. Met. 1.2.3);102…impertite sermones non quidem curiosum…(Apul. Met. 1.2.6);…indue eos tunicas…(Vet. Lat. Exod. 29.8);…totum caput cretam Cimoliam…imponito. (Mulom. Chir. 525);…nisi qui passionem Christi…fuerit obsignatus. (Tert. adv. Iud. 11.1);…hoc est quod obstricti sumus. (August. Serm. 180.14); (pullum)…quem perfundis ius tale. (Apic. 6.8.13);

Greek influence may have played a role, certainly in ecclesiastical texts, in utterances with cibo (‘to feed’) and poto (‘to make drink’) with a double accusative. These are found from the Vetus Latina onward.103

4.78 Bitransitivization through preverbs

Just as preverbs are a productive means of transitivizing intransitive verbs (one-place eo > two-place transeo), transitive verbs may be ‘bitransitivized’: two-place mitto > three-place transmitto.104 The preverbs involved are mainly circum ‘around’, trans ‘over’, and praeter ‘past’, ‘across’ (but see also immitto ‘to admit to’ in the Supplement). The compound verbs are motion verbs in their literal meaning. They are used from Early Latin onwards. Flumen in (a) is in the accusative as it would be if governed by the preposition trans in a prepositional phrase, as is shown by (b). While the second argument can become the subject in the passive, as is shown by maior multitudo in (c), the third argument cannot, and stays in the accusative, like Rhenum in the same sentence. On the basis of its preverb the verb interfluo ‘to flow between’ requires two arguments, which are coordinated, as in (d) (for one plural argument in a passive sentence, see the Supplement). Some of the verbs involved have other three-place patterns as well. An example is (e). The ‘supplying with’ accusative + ablative pattern (see § 4.53) seems to be more frequent when both arguments are non-human.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(p.173) (d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Quoius rei ergo agrum terram fundumque meum suovitaurilia circumagi iussi. (Cato Agr. 141.2); Tum autem circa tympanum involutus alter funis refertur ad ergatam, et is circumactus tympanum et axem…(Vitr. 10.2.7);…duas partes terrae circumdato radices…(Cato Agr. 114.1);…infula virgineos circumdata comptus…(Lucr. 1.87);…istum, puere, circumduce hasce aedis…(Pl. Mos. 843); Quos Pompeius…omnia sua praesidia circumduxit atque ostentavit. (Caes. Civ. 3.61.1); Nam sicut hae insulae interfluuntur quae sunt in nostro mari, ita illae in universo salo fretis latioribus ambiuntur. (Apul. Mun. 4);…pontus…/…arvaque et urbes / litore diductas angusto interluit aestu. (Verg. A. 3.417–19);…deversoria nota / praeteragendus equus. (Hor. Ep. 1.15.10–11); Transfer…/ limen aureolos pedes…(Catul. 61.166–7); NB:…ne tu quod istic fabuletur auris immittas tuas. (Pl. Capt. 548);

4.79 Object incorporation

There is one clear example of object incorporation in Latin,105 where the combination and fusion of the object and its governing verb itself governs an argument, viz. animum adverto or animadverto (‘to pay attention’). Synchronically, it is a two-place compound or complex expression. The object becomes the subject in the passive. Examples are (a) and (b). Diachronically, the person or object paid attention to functioned as a second object, in the way we saw above with the compounds formed with preverbs such as circum. There are a few more combinations with animum.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

Supplement:

EA·SENATUS / ANIMUM·ADVORTIT…(CIL I2.586.3–4 (Tivoli, c.100 BC));…EA·NOS·ANIMUM·NOSTRUM / NON·INDOUCEBAMUS·ITA·FACTA·ESSE…(CIL I2.586.5–6 (Tivoli, c.100 BC));…ne hic illam (<ad> illam cj. Gronovius) me animum adiecisse aliqua sentiat. (Pl. Mer. 334—see Enk ad loc.);…id quod animum induxerat…(Cic. Att. 7.3.8);…animum adverti columellam…(Cic. Tusc. 5.65);

(p.174) Passive: Sic minime animadverteretur delectationis aucupium…(Cic. Orat. 197);

NB: With an infinitive: Omnibus hoc vitium est cantoribus, inter amicos / ut numquam inducant animum cantare rogati, / iniussi numquam desistant. (Hor. S. 1.3.1–3);

There are a few other idiomatic expressions quoted in this context, such as ludos facio ‘to make a fool of’ in (c), cf. ludifico(r),106 and indicium facio ‘to give away a secret’ and manum inicio ‘to seize’, which govern an accusative object constituent, as is sometimes evident from passivization, as in (d). Ex. (e) belongs here as well.107

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Erum in opsidione linquet, inimicum animos auxerit. (Pl. As. 280); Rogasne, improbe, etiam qui ludos facis me? (Pl. Am. 571); Video hercle ego te me arbitrari, Euclio, hominem idoneum / quem…ludos facias…(Pl. Aul. 252–3); Id anus mi indicium fecit. (Ter. Ad. 617); Ita [<de> add. Seyffert] me uxor forma et factis faciat, si taceam, indicium. (Caecil. com. 144); Ubi quadrupulator quempiam iniexit manum…(Pl. Per. 70);

NB: ludos modified by an adjective:…numquam…quisquam me lenonem dixerit, / si te non ludos pessumos dimisero. (Pl. Rud. 791);

Appendix: In Late Latin there are a number of expressions, such as gratias ago ‘to thank’ and mentionem facio ‘to mention’, with object constituents in the accusative.108

4.80 Three-place verbs with a spatial third argument

4.81 Three-place verbs requiring a position argument

Position arguments are required with a number of three-place verbs indicating ‘keeping an entity in a certain position’.

(a) Verb frames

(p.175) (b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

It is not difficult to find (almost) identical expressions of position arguments in the bare ablative, as in the following examples.

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames109

(f) Verb frames

Position arguments are found with the following verbs in this class: (me) contineo ‘to keep (oneself) in a certain state/position’, contineor ‘to be kept in a certain state/position’, (me) teneo ‘to hold (oneself) in a certain state/position’, teneor ‘to be held in a certain state/position’, attineo ‘to hold (in a place)’ (Tac.).

Position arguments are also common with verbs indicating ‘putting an entity in a certain place’. These verbs imply ‘movement’ and can for that reason also be combined with a direction argument. Conceptually, these options are different. The prepositions in and sub govern the ablative in the first combination, the accusative in direction arguments. Which combination is preferred varies (in time, between authors, for non-literal and literal use), but in some cases there is no real choice (e.g. in sole ponere ‘to place in the sun’). There is also some variation in manuscript readings and there are emendations, as in (j) below. For the verbs involved, see Table 4.18.

Table 4.18 Three-place verbs governing a position argument

putting in a place

pono

‘to place’, ‘to put’

compounds

of pono

(de)figo

‘to fix’

(con)loco

‘to put’, ‘to place’

statuo

‘to set’, ‘to stand’

assigning

numero ‘to reckon’

refero ‘to assign’

inserting

imprimo

‘to plant’, ‘to imprint’

incido

‘to inscribe’

includo

‘to insert’

inscribo

‘to inscribe’

insculpo

‘to engrave’

(p.176) Examples of the verbs in the first row of Table 4.18 are (g)–(j).

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

Examples of direction arguments with the same class of verbs are (k)–(m). The variation is normally dealt with in a section on case variation with certain prepositions (see § 12.26).110

(k) Verb frames

(l) Verb frames

(m) Verb frames

In each of the instances above, the same verb by its meaning allows two different options for its obligatory third argument. These must not be confused with cases such as (n) and (o), where the position expression is a non-obligatory satellite.111

(n) Verb frames

(p.177) (o) Verb frames

Examples of the verbs in the other two rows of Table 4.18 are (p)–(s). Note the variation in (r) and (s).

(p) Verb frames

(q) Verb frames

(r) Verb frames

(s) Verb frames

To illustrate the range of constructions with verbs that do not indicate motion explicitly but do imply it, a few examples are given below of the verb figo ‘to fasten’. In example (t), the place where the table is to be put is expressed by an autonomous relative clause introduced by ubi ‘where’. In (u), this is expressed in the ablative. In (v), no specific place where the tabulae were put is mentioned, although the general location is indicated by the satellite toto Capitolio (the tabulae are definitely not attached to the Capitolium but are located on it). Ex. (w) demonstrates the use of a direction argument expressed by a prepositional phrase. Just as often poets prefer a dative expression to a prepositional one, as in (x).

(t) Verb frames

(u) Verb frames

(v) Verb frames

(w) Verb frames

(p.178) (x) Verb frames

4.82 Three-place verbs requiring a direction or goal argument

With a number of verbs of motion (including reflexive me recipio), a third argument indicating the direction or the goal of the movement is required. Direction and goal arguments are found with e.g. the following three-place verbs: mitto ‘to send’ + its compounds; compounds of fero ‘to bring’; and delego ‘to delegate’. The argument may be a bare case form, as in (a) and (c); a prepositional phrase, as in (b) and (d); or an adverb, as in (e). With some verbs the argument may be either a prepositional expression or a dative, as with affero ‘to bring as a contribution’ (OLD s.v. affero § 4), as in (f)–(g).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

4.83 Three-place verbs requiring a source argument

Source arguments are found with three-place verbs designating ‘motion away from’ or ‘separation from’. Three semantic classes of verbs can be distinguished: (i) ‘moving (p.179) away from’; (ii) ‘keeping away from’; and (iii) compounds meaning ‘moving away from’ on the basis of the meaning of their preverbs. A number of the verbs involved are given in Table 4.19.

Table 4.19 Three-place verbs governing a source argument

moving away from

moveo

‘to move’

pello

‘to expel’

mitto

‘to send’ – poetic

commoveo

‘to drive back’

demoveo

‘to remove’

depello

‘to drive off’

demitto

‘to send down’

keeping away from

arceo

‘to ward off’

prohibeo ‘to keep off’

(ab)alieno ‘to take way’

me abstineo

‘to keep oneself away’

divido ‘to separate’

compounds with separative

preverbs

ab-, de-,

ex-

claudo

‘to shut’

duco

‘to lead’

fero

‘to bear’

iacio

‘to throw’

rapio

‘to snatch’

terreo

‘to terrify’

verto

‘to turn’

Examples of verbs of moving away from are (a)–(f). The source arguments are usually expressed by means of a prepositional phrase, as in (a), but bare ablatives do occur in Classical prose (though sometimes emended), as in (b), and they are preferred in poetry. They are freely used in prose from Livy onwards (the so-called separative use of the ablative).112 With geographical names, the bare case form is usually preferred (see § 10.17), as in (c). Furthermore, it is quite common with these verbs when they are used in a non-literal sense and the source argument is more abstract, as in (d) and (e). However, in general there is much individual variation. Adverbs are used as well, as in (f). For the various classes of constituents found as source adjuncts (bare case forms, prepositional phrases, and adverbs) see § 10.13.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(p.180) (d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

Supplement:

Bare ablative:…ut alter in aerarios referri aut tribu moveri iubeat, alter vetet. (Cic. Clu. 122);…clarissimi viri, qui illa urbe pulsi carere ingrata civitate quam manere in inproba maluerunt. (Cic. Leg. 3.26);…quadriiugos aequo carcere misit equos. (Ov. Am. 3.2.66); Qualis spelunca subito commota columba…(Verg. A. 5.213);…hic ancilia caelo demissa…(Liv. 5.54.7);

Prepositional phrase:…ut alter de senatu movere velit, alter retineat…(Cic. Clu. 122); Quem quidem ego cum ex urbe pellebam…(Cic. Catil. 3.16);…sacro de carcere missis / insistam forti mente vehendus equis…(Ov. Am. 3.2.9–10); En umquam fando audistis patricios primo esse factos non de caelo demissos, sed…(Liv. 10.8.10);

Examples of verbs of keeping away from are (g) and (h).

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

Supplement:

Bare ablative: Quamquam aetas senet, satis habeam virium ut te ara arceam. (Pac. trag. 305);…quod Tissaphernes periurio suo et homines suis rebus abalienaret…(Nep. Ag. 2.5);…id curas atque urbanis rebus te apstines? (Pl. Cas. 101);…hunc et huius socios a tuis ceterisque templis, a tectis urbis ac moenibus, a vita fortunisque civium omnium arcebis…(Cic. Catil. 1.33);

Prepositional phrase:…utrum animos sociorum ab re publica removebas et abalienabas, an non? (Rhet. Her. 4.22);…qui possim videri huic fortis, a me ut apstineat manum. (Pl. Am. 340); (sc. Rhenus)…qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit…(Caes. Gal. 1.2.3);

Examples of compound verbs with separative preverbs are (i) and (j).

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

(p.181) Supplement:

Bare ablative: Venit medio vi pontus et undis / Hesperium Siculo latus abscidit…(Verg. A. 3.417–18); Qui natam possis conplexu avellere matris / conplexu matris retinentem avellere natam…(Catul. 62.21–2);…quibus ille solebat / cantando rigidas deducere montibus ornos. (Verg. Ecl. 6.70–1);…patefactis consiliis exclusus Capua…(Caes. Civ. 3.21.5);

Prepositional phrase:…num etiam de matris hunc complexu…avellet atque abstrahet? (Cic. Font. 46);…C. Sulpicium praetorem, fortem virum misi, qui ex aedibus Cethegi si quid telorum esset efferret. (Cic. Catil. 3.8); At placuero huic Erotio, / quae me non excludet ab se…(Pl. Men. 670–1);

In the case of a number of these compound verbs, the meaning is such that the ‘transfer’ or ‘giving’ frame together with its case pattern {accusative + dative} is relevant as well (see § 4.52).

4.84 Three-place verbs requiring an extent of space argument

With the verbs absum ‘to be (a specified distance) away’ and disto ‘to be distant (by an amount)’,113 and also with the verb sum in combination with a source argument, an expression indicating the distance between the two entities involved is required. Examples are (a)–(d). In (a) the extent of space argument is in the accusative, in (b) in the ablative. In (c) the place from which the river Anien is distant has to be inferred from the context. Instead of source expressions, a prepositional expression with inter is common as well, as in (d). An impersonal variant is shown in (e), with the two entities expressed as source and direction. A few other verbs indicating relative position are given in the Supplement.114

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(p.182) (e) Verb frames

Formally these expressions are similar to extent of space adjuncts (see § 10.18). Extent of space expressions are also used in position in space adjuncts (see § 10.3, Appendix). It is not always easy to decide what exactly the function of an extent of space expression in its clause is. Extent of space arguments may be in the accusative or in the ablative. With absum and disto Caesar and Cicero use the accusative. The ablative becomes normal from Livy onwards. The adverbs longe and procul ‘far’ are also common.

Supplement:

Accusative:…cum prima legio in castra venisset reliquaeque legiones magnum spatium abessent…(Caes. Gal. 2.17.2); Is locus aberat <a> novis Pompei castris circiter passus quingentos. (Gal. Civ. 3.67.1); Prima acies hastati erant, manipuli quindecim, distantes inter se modicum spatium. (Liv. 8.8.5); Sed ubi iam haud plus quingentos passus acies inter sese aberant…(Liv. 28.14.13);

Ablative: Hybanda, quondam insula Ioniae, ducentis nunc a mari abest stadiis. (Plin. Nat. 2.204); (sc. villa) Decem septem milibus passuum ab urbe secessit…(Plin. Ep. 2.17.2);

Impersonal: Inde est ferme mille passum. (Cato hist. 26);…ad portam mille a porta est. (Lucil. 124M=125K);115 NB: Habebat autem de eo loco ad montem Dei forsitan quattuor milia…(Pereg.1.2—see § 4.16);

Cf.: personal: Polam (v.l. ad Polam) ab Ancona traiectus CXX milia p. est. (Plin. Nat. 3.129);

Substantivally used accusative neuter forms of quantifying adjectives like quantum, tantum, multum, plus, and nihil are used as a general measure of distance, both in a literal and in a figurative sense. Examples are (f) and (g).

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(p.183) For adverbs functioning as extent of space arguments, see (h) and (i).

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

A(b) expressions with absum are dealt with as arguments and not as modifiers of longe and procul. See § 4.44. Longe and procul can be used in various constellations.

Appendix: The ablatives intervallo ‘distance’ (also in its temporal meaning ‘interval’) and spatio ‘gap’ (also in its temporal meaning ‘duration’) are often dealt with in this context, but they can better be taken as means or manner adjuncts. An example is (j). The same analysis seems preferable for (k).

(j) Verb frames

(k) Verb frames

Supplement:

Interim Caesari nuntiatur Sulmonenses, quod oppidum a Corfinio VII milium intervallo abest, cupere ea facere quae vellet…(Caes. Civ. 1.18.1);116 Ventidius bidui spatio abest ab eo. (Planc. Fam. 10.17.1); Quamdiu sic aestimantur, magno inter se dissident spatio. (Sen Ep. 66.19);

4.85 Three-place manipulation verbs

Three-place manipulation verbs require an agent/cause; a patient (the entity that is forced, asked, invited, or ordered to do something); and a third entity that denotes the aim of the agent or cause. Examples of manipulation verbs are cogo ‘to compel’, hortor ‘to urge’, invito ‘to invite’, and rogo ‘to request’. Whereas with verbs of asking the double accusative pattern is common, this is rare with the other manipulation verbs and almost limited to neuter pronouns and adjectives (see § 4.76). Examples of the verb cogo are (a) and (b). Note that in (b) the patient ego is the subject of passive cogor. Other expressions for the third argument besides neuter pronouns and adjectives are prepositional phrases with ad or in in combination with a noun that implies an event, as ad lacrimas in (c). However, the normal situation is one in which the third entity denotes an action required from the patient. This action is typically expressed by an infinitive (a so-called PROLATIVE INFINITIVE), as in (d), or a finite ut clause, as in (e); the (p.184) latter is less common in Early Latin. Note that in (e) the patient senatus is the subject of passive cogitur. For further details, see § 15.70.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

4.86 Three-place verbs with two non-accusative arguments

There are a few three-place verbs with a dative and an ablative argument. A fairly common instance of this phenomenon is (a) with the verb interdico ‘to forbid someone’, where the dative can be understood as it is with verbs of communication (see § 4.52) and the ablative as it is with verbs of depriving; thus, this frame is a form of merger or ‘contamination’. The same kind of merger of two constructions can be seen with invideo ‘to envy’ in (b). With both verbs, an accusative instead of the ablative is common as well. There are also a few instances of a prepositional phrase instead of an ablative. Other verbs with this pattern are extremely rare (see the Supplement).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

Supplement:

…quem ad modum nostro more male rem gerentibus patribus bonis interdici solet…(Cic. Sen. 22); Tunc flesse decuit, cum adempta sunt nobis arma, incensae naves, interdictum externis bellis. (Liv. 30.44.7); Sed, ut tibi rationem reddam, qua (p.185) nulli mortalium invideo, audi quid promittam et quanti quaeque aestimem. (Sen. Dial. 7.24.5);

With an acc.: Quotiens hoc tibi, verbero, ego interdixi, / meam ne sic volgo pollicitere operam? (Pl. Mil. 1056–7); Interdixit histrionibus scaenam (Suet. Domit. 7.1);…philosophi…senatusconsulto eiecti atque urbe et Italia interdicti sunt. (Gel. 15.11.4—NB: passive); Sed quae est invidia aut quid mihi nunc invideri potest? (Cic. Fam. 9.16.5);

With ab: (Valerius Horatiusque) decemviris quoque ab ira et impetu multitudinis praecavere iubentur. (Liv. 3.53.1);

With de:…P. Dolabella praetor interdixit, ut est consuetudo, ‘de vi hominibus armatis’…(Cic. Caec. 23);

Other verbs which seem to instantiate a combination of a dative argument and an ablative argument are verbs of sacrificing and of praying, such as immolo ‘to offer in sacrifice’ and supplico ‘to make offerings’. In (c) we have indeed dative and ablative constituents but the object of immolo, which is a verb of transfer, is lacking; the ablative constituents are in reality instrument adjuncts, as appears from (d), where datod appears with its entire frame (Iove: dative, and piaclum: accusative) and the adjunct bovid. Supplico is a two-place verb governing a dative; in (e) an instrument adjunct (in the ablative) is added. Entities used for such ritual activities are commonly expressed as instrument adjuncts, as is shown in (f) with the verb facio ‘to do’ referring to an act of sacrifice and the adjunct quot agnis (see also § 10.50).117

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(p.186) Supplement:

Cn. Cornelio et Q. Petillio consulibus…immolantibus Iovi singulis bubus uti solet…(Liv. 41.14.7); Quoius quotiens sepulcrum vides, sacruficas / ilico Orco hostiis…(Pl. Epid. 175–6);…tum (sc. Metello) venienti ture quasi deo supplicabatur. (Sal. Hist. 2.70.3);

Appendix: A rare combination of a dative and a genitive can be seen in (g).

(g) Verb frames

4.87 Three-place verbs with an object and a complement

Non-referential obligatory third arguments are found with various classes of verbs that govern an object argument in the accusative case. The same frame is found with the verb utor in its meaning ‘to find’. The object is usually a nominal expression (a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun), but with certain classes of verbs it may be a clause as well. The third argument (the object complement) can be filled by a noun (phrase) or adjective, showing agreement in number, gender, and case with the object, but just as with subject complements, prepositional phrases, adverbs, and nouns or noun phrases not showing agreement are found as well (see also § 9.39).118 The various types are illustrated for the verb habeo by (a)–(e).119 In (a), flos (cenae) agrees with the subject of the passive sentence is. Ex. (b) has the prepositional phrase pro castris, (c) the adverb sic, and (d) the noun odio in the dative (a so-called predicative dative—see § 9.34). Ex. (e) has a prepositional phrase as the complement and an accusative and infinitive clause (between curly brackets) as the object. Further examples of such clauses can be found in § 15.101.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(p.187) In these examples habeo is clearly a three-place verb. This becomes evident if in (a)one deletes either the subject or the subject complement. This results in (f) and (g). The remaining utterances may be acceptable, but habeo would not have the same meaning as in the original text.

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

Habeo occurs also in a two-place frame, in its meanings ‘to have’, ‘to possess’, and ‘to keep’, as in (h). A clause with habeo in this meaning can be expanded with a secondary predicate. An example is (i), with servas as secondary predicate: if it is left out, the remaining utterance is grammatically correct, and habeo has the same meaning as in the original sentence.

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

Whereas in the examples of habeo so far the two frames correspond to two clearly different meanings, this issue is more complicated in instances like (j). As the translation suggests, habeo does not really mean ‘to have’, ‘to possess’, it rather functions more or less as a transitive copula (compare Gallia Antonio inimicissima est).120 See also § 7.37 on habeo + the perfect passive participle.

(j) Verb frames

Just as with copular verbs (see § 4.97), two types of verbs can be distinguished: verbs implying no change of the properties of the object (non-dynamic) and verbs which do imply a change (dynamic). Examples of the first type are (a) and (j) with habeo. Examples of the second type are red­do ‘to bring into a cert­ain condition’, as in (k), and creo, as in (l).

(k) Verb frames

(p.188) (l) Verb frames

4.88 Three-place verbs governing an accusative object + accusative complement

When a three-place verb that governs an accusative object and a complement that agrees with the object is used in the passive, both nominal constituents occur in the nominative case, as in (a) and (b). The complement can be part of an ablative absolute clause, as in (c), or of genitive or dative constituents, as in (d) and (e), respectively.121 The complements show the usual agreement. Table 4.20 contains the most common verbs with an accusative object + complement frame.

Table 4.20 Three-place verbs governing an accusative object and a complement

giving, having, and taking

accipio

‘to accept’

adhibeo

‘to apply’

do

‘to give’

habeo

‘to have’

postulo

‘to ask, to require’

teneo

‘to hold’

volo

‘to desire’

making, rendering

efficio

‘to render’

facio

‘to make’

fingo

‘to contrive’

reddo

‘to return’

sisto

‘to set up’

regarding as, judging as

duco

‘to consider’

existimo

‘to estimate’

habeo

‘to regard as’

iudico

‘to judge’

numero

‘to count, to reckon’

puto

‘to think’

sentio

‘to discern’

calling, entitling

appello

‘to address’

describo

‘to assign to’

dico

‘to call’

inscribo

‘to ascribe to’

memoro

‘to make mention of’

nomino

‘to name’

voco

‘to call’

electing as, proclaiming as

creo

‘to choose, to elect’

declaro

‘to declare’

dico

‘to proclaim, to appoint’

eligo

‘to elect’

lego

‘to choose’

renuntio

‘to proclaim’

scribo

‘to declare’

showing oneself as, behaving as

fero

‘to carry oneself (in a certain way)’

impertio

‘to share’

praebeo

‘to show oneself, to behave’

praesto

‘to show, to exhibit’

profiteor

‘to profess’

(p.189) (a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Examples of object complements with verbs of giving, having, taking are (f)–(h). Some of these verbs are used exclusively or more frequently with nouns and noun phrases as the object complement, others (also) with adjectives. Other expressions are sometimes found as complements as well.

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Boiosque…receptos ad se socios sibi adsciscunt. (Caes. Gal. 1.5.4); Ita me mea forma habet sollicitum. (Pl. Mil. 1087); Inde hortatu L. Valerii Flacci, quem in consulatu censuraque habuit collegam…(Nep. Ca. 1.1); Quare moneo hortorque vos ne tantum scelus inpunitum omittatis. (Sal. Jug. 31.25); Tibi optionem sumito Leonidam. (Pl. As. 101); Quam provinciam tenuistis a praedonibus liberam per hosce annos? (Cic. Man. 32);

Examples of object complements with verbs of making are (i)–(k).

(i) Verb frames

(p.190) (j) Verb frames

(k) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Quod eveniet, si eum benivolum, attentum, docilem confecerit. (Cic. Inv. 1.20); Ibo ad uxorem intro, missum facio Teresiam senem. (Pl. Am. 1145); Et isti me heredem fecit. (Pl. Cur. 639); Quodsi talis nos natura genuisset…(Cic. Tusc. 3.2); Senem illum tibi dedo ulteriorem, lepide ut lenitum reddas (Pl. Bac. 1150); Multos iam lucrum lutulentos homines reddidit. (Pl. Capt. 326); Ego vos salvas sistam, ne timete. (Pl. Rud. 1049);

Some of the verbs in this class also have a two-place frame with the resulting state expressed as a clause with ut, so for example facio and efficio. Especially in Early Latin we find utterances that look like mixed expressions, with an object in the main clause that functions also as the subject in the subordinate clause, like cenam in (l). These objects are treated as ‘pseudo-objects’ in this Syntax (see § 9.14).

(l) Verb frames

Examples of object complements with verbs of regarding, considering, reckoning are (m)–(o). They show the variety of expressions that can function as object complement (a noun, adjective, and prepositional phrase, respectively). A complication one encounters when examining individual instances is that with these verbs the accusative and infinitive is common as well, and one may hesitate whether the expression at hand is an accusative and infinitive clause without the infinitive esse or a combination of an object and a complement, as with the verb credo in (p). The same holds for the passive, as is shown in (q).

(m) Verb frames

(n) Verb frames

(o) Verb frames

(p) Verb frames

(p.191) (q) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Certe edepol equidem te civem sine mala omni malitia / semper sum arbitratus et nunc arbitror. (Pl. Aul. 215–16);…quom modo taedio rerum advorsarum omnia bello potiora duceret…(Sal. Jug. 62.9);…malitiam sapientiam iudicant. (Cic. Off. 2.10); Singulas enim stellas numeras deos eosque aut beluarum nomine appellas…(Cic. N.D. 3.40); Humani nil a me alienum puto. (Ter. Hau. 77);…M. Antonio consule, quem vel praecipuum adiutorem speraverat…(Suet. Aug. 10.2);

Examples of object complements with verbs of calling and entitling are (r)–(t).

(r) Verb frames

(s) Verb frames

(t) Verb frames122

Supplement:

Cognoscite nunc ita reum citatum esse illum ut…(Cic. Clu. 49); Rite vero te, Cyre, beatum ferunt…(Cic. Sen. 59);…a Biante esse dictum crederet, qui sapiens habitus esset unus e septem. (Cic. Amic. 59); Se miserum praedicat. (Pl. Men. 909); Demetrium…qui Phalereus vocitatus est…(Cic. Rab. Post. 23);

Examples of object complements with verbs of electing and proclaiming are (u) and (v).

(u) Verb frames

(v) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

quem ipse Atrebatibus superatis regem ibi constituerat…(Caes. Gal. 4.21.7); Princeps in senatu tertium lectus P. Scipio Africanus. (Liv. 38.28.2); Tu cum esses praetor renuntiatus quoquo modo…(Cic. Ver. 5.38); Nemo illum ex tam multis cognatis et adfinibus tutorem umquam liberis suis scripsit…(Cic. Clu. 41);…postridieque sibi collegam Sp. Lucretium subrogavit…(Cic. Rep. 2.55);

(p.192) Examples of an object complement with verbs meaning ‘showing oneself as’, ‘behaving as’ that govern reflexive pronouns as the object are (w) and (x). The expressions involved are very heterogeneous. Some of the verbs have a complement only if the object is a reflexive pronoun, others have a frame with an object and an object complement, but with a different meaning, as is shown by (w) and (x). Praebeo appears in (w) in its meaning ‘to show oneself’, while in (x) it means ‘to render’.

(w) Verb frames

(x) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

…non dubitaverim me gravissimis tempestatibus ac paene fulminibus ipsis obvium ferre…(Cic. Rep. 1.7);…qui se intenderant adversarios in eius tribunatum…(Cael. Fam. 8.4.2);…ut nemo tam ferus fuerit, quin eius casum lacrumarit inimicumque iis se ostenderit…(Nep. Alc. 6.4); Productus est ab eo Cn. Pompeius, qui se non solum auctorem meae salutis, sed etiam supplicem populo Romano <praebuit>. (Cic. Sest. 107); Se ad eam rem profitetur adiutorem. (Caes. Gal. 5.38.4);

4.89 Three-place verbs governing an ablative object + complement

The verb utor ‘to find’ occurs in a three-place frame in which both the second and third argument are in the ablative and the third argument is almost always an adjective, rarely a noun. Examples are (a) and (b). Utor belongs to the non-dynamic type of verbs that is mentioned in § 4.87.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

Supplement:

…ille facili me utetur…(Ter. Hau. 217); Ego dum illo licitum’st, usa sum benigno et lepido et comi. (Ter. Hec. 837); Hic vide quam me sis usurus aequo. (Cic. Ver. 5.154);

4.90 Zerovalent verbs

Verbs refer­ring to natural conditions, inclu­ding the weather, require no partici­pant. The clauses involved are therefore subject­less. Traditi­onally, such verbs are called IMPERSONAL, just like other verbs that only have the third person singular ending. (p.193) Weather verbs are the most conspicuous examples, such as pluit ‘it is raining’, rorat ‘it drizz­les’, ‘the dew is falling’, tonat ‘it is thundering’. An example is given in (a). Similar verbs of natural conditions are illucescit ‘it dawns’ (more often dies illucescit), lucet ‘it is light’, and vespe­rascit ‘night is falling’. Other verbs may be used in a similar way in one of their meanings, so for example adflat ‘it is blowing’, lapidat ‘it is raining stones’, siccat ‘it is dry’, vibrat ‘it vibrates’. If these verbs are governed by a phasal verb like desino ‘to stop’ or incipio ‘to begin’, the phasal verb is in the third person singular, as in (b). The prototypical weather verbs are sometimes found with an explicit subject, often so in a non-literal sense and in poetically inspired texts, as in (c). The substance is occasionally expressed as an object in the accusative case, as in (d). An ablative adjunct is more common, as in (e), and with verbs of flowing such as fluo ‘to flow’ (see § 4.10, Appendix). Impersonal passive forms of these verbs, as in (f), are very rare (see also § 5.21).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Si cacumina pura fient, disserenabit. (Plin. Nat. 18.356);…si fulserit, si tonuerit, si tactum aliquid erit de caelo…(Cic. Div. 2.149);…tanto magis si nives iaceant geletve…(Plin. Nat. 17.250); Cum sereno caelo fulgetrae erunt et tonitrua, hiemabit, atrocissime autem, cum ex omnibus quattuor partibus caeli fulgurabit. (Plin. Nat. 18.354); Si dies est, lucet. (Cic. Inv. 1.86); Interea toto non setius aëre ninguit. (Verg. G. 3.367);…si nubilare coepit…(Var. R. 1.13.5); Si circa occasum refulsit, rorabit et leviter impluet. (Sen. Nat. 1.6.1);…ubi pluerit et siccaverit…(Cato Agr. 112.2); Cum aestate vehementius tonuit quam fulsit, ventos ex ea parte denuntiat, contra si minus tonuit, imbrem. (Plin. Nat. 18.354); Et vesperascit et non noverunt viam (Ter. Hau. 248); Nec simplici modo quatitur umquam, sed tremit vibratque. (Plin. Nat. 2.194—NB: unless terra is to be taken as the subject);…hiemabit…disserenabit (Plin. Nat. 18.356);

(p.194) Gerund:…omnem aquam oportere arceri quae pluendo crevisset (Cic. Top. 38);

Present participle in an ablative absolute: Illinc flante ne arato…(Plin. Nat. 18.328—NB: flante <vento> add. Detlefsen with F2); Episcopus autem albescente vadet semper, ut missa fiat matutina…(Pereg. 44.3);

Intransitive and Impersonal:…ubicumque obscuraverit…(Vulg. Sirach. 36.28);

Personal:…aere atque argento sternunt iter omne viarum / largifica stipe ditantes ninguntque rosarum / floribus…(Lucr. 2.626–7);

Subject explicit: (with a demonstrative pronoun): Lucescit hoc iam. (Pl. Am. 543);123 Luciscit hoc iam. (Ter. Hau. 410); Nam hoc quidem edepol hau multo post luce lucebit. (Pl. Cur. 182);

(with Iuppiter:)…Iove tonante…(Cic. Phil. 5.8);

(with other types of subject:) Prodinunt. Famuli tum candida lumina lucent (Enn. Ann. 156V=148S—NB: the interpretation of the text is uncertain);124indignatio (sc. domini) ningat ei dolores…(Ambr. Job II.1.2); Sanguinem (sanguine cj. Marsus) pluisse senatui nuntiatum est…(Cic. Div. 2.58); Lapides pluere et fulmina iaci de caelo…portenta esse putatis. (Liv. 28.27.16); L. autem Paulo C. Marcello cos. lana pluit circa castellum Carissanum…(Plin. Nat. 2.147);…stridentia funda saxa pluunt…(Stat. Theb. 8.416–17);…ut vesperascente caelo Thebas possent pervenire…(Nep. Pel. 2.5—NB: ablative absolute);

Object explicit: In area Volcani et Concordiae sanguinem (v.l. sanguine) pluit. (Liv. 40.19.2—NB: see Briscoe ad loc. who reads sanguine);

Ablative satellite: Inter alia prodigia et carne pluit, quem imbrem ingens numerus avium intervolitando rapuisse fertur. (Liv. 3.10.6);…lacte et sanguine pluisse…et saepe alias, sicut carne…item ferro…(Plin. Nat. 2.147); Effigies quo pluit ferri spongearum similis fuit. (Plin. Nat. 2.147);

From Antiquity onwards scholars have assumed some sort of implied subject with impersonal expressions like pluit, for example Iuppiter. Flobert (1975: 557–9) suggests pluvia ‘rain’ as an underlying subject. For weather verbs in Latin, see also de Carvalho (1991a). The religious aspects of these expressions are discussed in Le Bourdelles (1966). General discussion in von Seefranz-Montag (1983) and Eriksen, Kitillä, and Kolehmainen (2010).

Weather verbs have been the subject of intense debate between linguists of various theoretical models. See Ruwet (1989) for discussion. A thorough analysis of impersonal verbs, including weather verbs, in German is Corrodi (1925). In the case of German regnen he makes a threefold distinction (1925: 28–9): (i) es regnet as a mere event, where regnen applies to the ‘situation’; (ii) die Wolken regnen, etc. with reference to some cause; (iii) Blut regnet, with reference to some material coming down in the form of rain. The latter two usages are under Latin and/or biblical influence. It makes no sense to derive the first type from the other ones.

Two-place use of pluo is first found in Christian authors and in translations of the Bible, as in (g). Remarkable is the combination with the verb possum in (h).

(p.195) (g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

There is an exceptional impersonal use of bucino ‘to sound on a trumpet’ in (i), unless an unspecified subject (bucinator) is assumed (for such subjects, see § 9.10). Hoc pulveret ‘it is dusty here’ from a quotation of Plautus in Gellius in (j) may belong here as well.

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

4.91 Copula and copular verbs

4.92 The copula sum

As in other languages, the Latin verb sum ‘to be’ functions in various ways. It may be used in ‘identity statements’ of the type this is my father as well as in ‘predicational statements’ of various types. Examples of sum in identity statements are (a) and (b). An example of a predicational statement is (c) where orator ‘orator’ indicates the class to which the subject constituent (‘I’) belongs. A further example of sum in a predicational statement is (d), where the adjective mortales (mortal) serves to indicate a property or quality of animi ‘souls’. In all these instances the verb sum requires two arguments, a subject and a subject complement.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(p.196) (c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

The subject complements in these examples agree with the subject in number, gender, and case. In (a), Orestes in the clause uter Orestes esset is in the nominative (as is the subject uter), whereas Orestem in the accusative and infinitive clause Orestem se esse is in the accusative, as is the subject se. (For the various categories that may function as subject complements, see § 9.20.)

The valency of the combination of sum and the subject complement depends on the valency of the subject complement: in (d), with mortales, it requires only one argument, animi, the subject of the senten­ce; in (e), the combination of the copula with the adjective dignus ‘worth’ is two-place, the subject (‘you’) and verberibus multis, which denotes what the subject is worth.

(e) Verb frames

The status of the verb sum in such expressions is much debated in the literature. Whereas in the introduction to this section sum is described as a two-place verb, other scholars125 maintain that sum in such constructions is just a means of expressing the person and number of the subject con­stituent and the tense and mood of the clause, without contributing much meaning to the content of its clause. It is sometimes regarded as a ‘dummy’ element that only functions as a support for a complex expression. In support of this position, scholars argue that forms of sum are often absent (see § 4.96 on so-called nominal sentences). However, there are a number of reasons not to adopt this analysis.126 In the first place, sum differs in meaning from other ‘copular’ verbs that are also combined with a subject complement, such as fio ‘to become’ and maneo ‘to remain’ (see § 4.97 for details). Secondly, when a clause has no explicit subject because it can be inferred from the preceding context, est, sunt, or another third person form must be expressed, as in (f). Thirdly when it must be made clear that something is indeed the case, sum cannot be omitted and is even regularly found in the very first position of the sentence, as in (g).127

(f) Verb frames

(p.197) (g) Verb frames

The distinction between ‘identifying’ and ‘predicational’ is also not unproblematic. The distinction depends partly on the differences between the constituents functioning as subject complement (proper name, count noun, adjective). They do not differ in respect of word order nor in topic/focus distribution.128

The use of sum as a copula has to be distinguished from several other uses.129 Uses discussed elsewhere in this chapter are (a) two-place sum ‘to be worth’ (see § 4.32); (b) two-place ‘possession’ sum (see § 4.26); (c) two-place position sum ‘to be somewhere’ (§ 4.42); and (d) various uses of impersonal est, among which ‘it is possible’ (see § 4.15). In this section two more uses will be distinguished and perhaps a third. It is not easy to formally distinguish these types and perhaps other types of sum, and one may even doubt whether we should distinguish more than two verbs sum (one-place ‘existential’, two-place ‘copula’) alongside the auxiliary use.130

4.93 Auxiliary sum

In the first place there is the AUXILIARY use of sum in the perfect passive forms, for example, laudatus sum ‘I have been praised’; in the perfect forms of deponents, for example, locutus sum ‘I have spoken’; in the periphrastic active future, for example, laudaturus sum ‘I am going to praise’; and in gerundival expressions like laudandus sum ‘I must be praised’.

Forms of the auxiliary sum are often not expressed. Examples are (a)–(e). Absence of a form of sum is especially the case for the infinitive esse, notably in accusative and infinitive clauses and in nominative and infinitive constructions (where it is also common for copular esse—see § 4.96). Omission of esse is far more frequent than its presence with the future active infinitive (absent from 80% of the instances in Plautus and Terence and from 70% of those in Cicero—who used esse for building clausulae; see (e)—90% or more in most other authors).131 In the case of the perfect passive forms (where confusion with the double accusative pattern is possible), esse is absent less often. Omission of the perfect infinitive fuisse occurs with particular frequency in Tacitus, naturally only when the context leaves no doubt that a perfect form has to be understood, as in (f).

(p.198) (a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

Appendix: Omission of finite forms of auxiliary sum is much less common, certainly in Cicero. The form most easily omitted is the indicative form est. If the context is clear enough, other forms may be absent as well. Most instances are found in historical prose from Livy132 through Ammianus. Varro very frequently omits forms of auxiliary sum. This is related to the type of text (didactic) and to Varro’s desire to be brief. It is also popular in poetry, notably in Virgil, and very frequent in Tacitus.133 Examples are (g)–(l) (ø = absent sum form). Especially in the case of deponent forms there is a risk of ambiguity: the remaining part might be interpreted as a participle. Tacitus seems to use word order and change of construction as means to avoid ambiguity.134

(g) Verb frames

(p.199) (h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

(k) Verb frames

(l) Verb frames

Supplement:

In subordinate clause: Optas quae facta ø. (Pl. Am. 575); Postquam introgressi ø et coram data ø copia fandi, / maximus Ilioneus placido sic pectore coepit. (Verg. A. 1.520–1);

Non-third person: Nunc adeo, ut facturus ø, dicam. (Pl. Men. 119); Ter conatus ø ibi collo dare bracchia circum. (Verg. A. 2.792);

Non-present: (sc. Pergama) Quae neque Dardaniis campis potuere perire / nec cum capta ø capi nec cum combusta ø cremari (Enn. Ann. 358–9V=344–5S);

Non-indicative: Quid enim? Facta necne facta largitio ø ignorari potest? (Cic. Fam. 3.11.2); Dissimulant et nube cava speculantur amicti, / quae fortuna viris ø, classem quo litore linquant, / quid veniant. (Verg. A. 1.516–18); Neque enim ille dedisset, / si molles habitus et tegmina foeda fateri / ausa ø seni. (Stat. Ach. 1.141–3);

For the use of a number of verbs instead of auxiliary sum in Late Latin, see Sz.: 395. Early instances have been collected from the Augustan poets onwards (and even in Lucretius, as in ex. (m)), but in most instances the verb has its own meaning.135

(p.200) (m) Verb frames

4.94 Existential sum

The second use of sum to be mentioned here is its so-called EXISTENTIAL use ‘to exist’, ‘to be there’. Sum is a one-place verb and in (a) senex is the subject. The copular verb fio ‘to come into existence’ is used in a similar way, as is shown in (b). The same goes for maneo, as in (c). A few other copular verbs are given in the Supplement.136

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

Supplement:

Uno Gelasimo minus est quam dudum fuit. (Pl. St. 498); Dum fuit dedit. Nunc nil habet. Quod habebat nos habemus…(Pl. Truc. 217); Si f[o]enum non erit, frondem iligneam et hederaciam dato. (Cato Agr. 54.1);

…cum quaeritur quid aut sit aut evenerit aut futurum sit aut quid omnino fieri possit. (Cic. Top. 50); Talem vero existere eloquentiam, qualis fuerit in Crasso et Antonio, non cognitis rebus omnibus quae ad tantam prudentiam pertinerent…non potuisse confirmo. (Cic. de Orat. 2.6);

NB: Si adgnatus nec escit, gentiles familiam habento. (Lex XII 5.5);137

Appendix: In (d), est looks impersonal (see § 4.15) and dies a subject complement.

(d) Verb frames

Supplement:

E quibus pullos cum excuderunt ita tuentur ut et pinnis foveant ne frigore laedantur et si est calor a sole se opponant. (Cic. N.D. 1.129); Si aestas est, in mari natare commodum est. (Cels. 3.21);

(p.201) 4.95 Sum with an adverb as the second argument

Thirdly, sum is also used in a two-place frame, with a subject and an adverb describing the mood of the subject or his behaviour. It is not clear how it is related to the impersonal use of est with an adverb (bene est) described in § 4.15. Examples are (a) and (b). Different again are instances like (c), where sum means ‘to be somewhere’, as appears from in convivio (see the ‘position’ use of sum of § 4.42; see also § 9.36).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

Supplement:

…ut…vos istic commodissime sperem esse…(Cic. Fam. 14.7­.2); Pompeius erat apud me cum haec scribebam, hilare et libenter. (Cic. Fam. 16.10.2);…Romanos sicuti plerosque remoto metu laxius licentiusque futuros. (Sal. Jug. 87.4); Si a Samnitium armis defensi essent, se sub imperio populi Romani fideliter atque oboedienter futuros. (Liv. 8.19.1);

4.96 Nominal sentences

The copula sum is often absent. A sentence in which a form of copular sum is absent, but could be added without changing the meaning and the structure of the utterance is called a NOMINAL SENTENCE. Nominal sentences are found from the earliest period onwards, notably in inscriptions indicating whose property the inscribed object is. Two examples are (a) and (b). In (a), kavidios is sometimes taken as a possession expression showing agreement with the subject eqo. Ex. (b) has a noun in the genitive as subject complement.138

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames139

(p.202) The evident constraint on the absence of the copula is that the grammatical structure and the context must leave no doubt about the identity of the subject and about the temporal and modal meaning of the clause. This explains why nominal sentences are almost absent in legal texts.140

Third person forms are more frequently absent than those of the first and second person, because the third person subject is more often explicit. Additionally, the present indicative forms are more often absent than other verb forms.141 There are no restrictions on sentence type. Although nominal sentences are usually not complex, there are no restrictions. The clauses are usually brief and without satellites. There are a number of idioms in which absence of the copula is regular. In some of these contexts other verbs are also often absent, especially verbs of speaking and of doing.142 Representative examples of nominal sentences are (c)–(i).143 Ex. (c) is a proverb-like statement; (d) is a short statement in the form of a rhetorical question; (e) is a transitional statement; (f) is a conditional period; (g) has a relative clause.144 Ex. (h) is a dependent question where the subjunctive is regular. Ex. (i) illustrates an idiom. In the Supplement, types of omission can be found that are less common than these.

Variation in the frequency with which the copula is omitted is determined not only by context (and hence also by text type) but also by the preference of individual authors. After the Classical period the omission of forms of sum becomes a stylistic device, exploited extensively by Tacitus.145

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(p.203) (h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

Supplement:

Regular instances: Quid peius muliere aut audacius ø? (Pl. Mil. 307); Nam viri nostri domo ut abierunt, / hic tertius (tertius<t> cj. Ritschl146) annus. (Pl. St. 29–30); Quam ibi miseriam vidi! Nati filii ø. / Alia cura ø. (Ter. Ad. 867–8); Ex quo illud summum ius ø summa iniuria factum est iam tritum sermone proverbium. (Cic. Off. 1.33); Praeclarum igitur illud Platonis ø. (Cic. Off. 1.63); Genus hominum ø salubri corpore, velox, patiens laborum. (Sal. Jug. 17.6); Felix ø, qui potuit rerum cognoscere caussas…(Verg. G. 2.500); Magnus ø ille qui in divitiis pauper est. (Sen. Ep. 20.10);

In subordinate clauses: Nam si ille non hostis ø, hos qui consulem reliquerunt hostis ø necesse est iudicemus. (Cic. Phil. 4.5); Sunt mihi bis septem praestanti corpore nymphae, / quarum quae forma pulcherrima ø Deiopea / conubio iungam stabili…(Verg. A. 1.71–3); Hic una e multis, quae maxima natu ø, / Pyrgo, tot Priami natorum regia nutrix:…(Verg. A. 5.644–5); Sanguis quibus multus et pinguis ø, iracundi ø. (Plin. Nat. 11.221); Qui temperans (<est> cj. Hense), et constans (<est> ς‎). (Sen. Ep. 85.2);147

Less common instances:

Non-third person: Ego lanista ø? Et quidem non insipiens ø. (Cic. Phil. 13.40); Et sestertia quae soles precari / centum desine. Nam satis beatus ø. (Catul. 23.26–7);148 Tune ille Aeneas ø, quem Dardanio Anchisae / alma Venus Phrygii genuit Simoentis ad undam? (Verg. A. 1.617–8);

Non-present tense: Nemo quisquam acceptior ø. / Servi liberique amabant. (Pl. Per. 648–9); Euander enim, qui venit in Palatium, e Graecia Arcas ø. (Var. L. 5.21);149 Quorum alter remissus et lenis et propriis verbis comprendens solute et facile sententiam, alter ornatus, acer et non talis qualem tu eum, Brute, iam deflorescentem cognovisti, sed verborum et actionis genere commotior ø. (Cic. Brut. 317); Pavor ingens in urbe ø, metuque mutuo suspensa erant omnia. Timere relicta a suis plebes violentiam patrum. Timere patres residem in urbe plebem…(Liv. 2.32.5); Famae nec incuriosus nec venditator ø. Pecuniae alienae non adpetens, suae parcus, publicae avarus ø. Amicorum libertorumque, ubi in bonos incidisset, sine reprehensione patiens, si mali forent, usque ad culpam ignarus ø. (Tac. Hist. 1.49.3);

Indirect questions: Quis enim non videt unde ø argentifodinae et viocurus? (Var. L. 5.7—NB: need not be an instance of absence of the copula; another verb might be supplied as well);…potest incidere saepe contentio et comparatio de duobus honestis utrum honestius ø. (Cic. Off. 1.152); Quid verum atque decens ø curo et rogo et omnis in hoc sum. (Hor. Ep. 1.1.10); Illa, quis Actaeon ø, nescit…(Ov. Met. 3.721); (p.204) Is imperitos animos et quaenam post Augustum militiae condicio ø ambigentes impellere paulatim…(Tac. Ann. 1.16.3);

Other subordinate clauses:…vultu…composito, ne laeti excessu principis neu tristior<es> primordio ø, lacrimas gaudium, questus adulatione<m> miscebant. (Tac. Ann. 1.7.1);

Appendix: There is much discussion about the status of ‘nominal sentences’: are they sentences in which a form of sum is absent, or should we assume two independent types of sentences: ‘nominal’ and ‘verbal’?150 The fact that there are restrictions on the absence of the copula is an argument for assuming one type of sentence in which the copula may be omitted under well-described circumstances. However, for the description of the data it does not make much difference.

The omission of auxiliary sum is discussed in § 4.93. But omission of sum can occur not only when it is used as an auxiliary or copulative but also when it is employed in its other uses. In fact, all forms of sum seem to be omissible, with the exception of existential sum. This can be illustrated by (j) from Varro. Here the first instance of sunt seems to be locatival (in view of in silva), the second is auxiliary, the third seems to be existential, the fourth most likely auxiliary.

(j) Verb frames

4.97 Copular verbs

Apart from the copula sum, several verbs in at least one of their meanings occur in equative constructions and some of them became almost equivalent to the copula or even in the course of history replaced sum. These verbs are either non-dynamic or dynamic. Typical instances of non-dynamic verbs are the copula sum ‘to be’ itself and the verb maneo ‘to remain’ (not very frequent in this meaning) and its compounds permaneo ‘to persist’ and remaneo ‘to remain’. Fio ‘to become’ is the typical dynamic copular verb. Examples of copular verbs are (a)–(c).

(a) Verb frames

(p.205) (b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Simul atque enim se inflexit hic rex in dominatum iniustiorem, fit continuo tyrannus…(Cic. Rep. 2.48); Lenior et melior fis accedente senecta? (Hor. Ep. 2.2.211);…deinde, si qua gratia testes deter<r>entur, tabulae quidem certe incorruptae atque integrae manent. (Cic. Font. 3);…quod superioris anni munitiones integrae manebant, ut militum laborem sublevaret. (Caes. Gal. 6.32.5);…sive dominus manet sive desiit esse dominus…(Ulp. dig. 9.4.2.1); Tu tamen permanes constantissimus defensor Antoni. (Cic. Phil. 8.17); Quae (lucerna) si permanserit ardens…(Vitr. 8.6.13); Post obligationem vero si cesserit, nihilominus ipse heres permanet…(Gaius Inst. 2.35); (sc. auctoritas) Quae tamen gravis et magna remanebat…(Cic. Rep. 2.59);

Especially in poetry, a number of verbs denoting a position or state are used as alternatives to sum (for details see below). Similarly, a number of verbs of motion are used with subject complements in such a way that they seem to be semantically close substitutes of the verb fio, expressing a resulting state of being. Devenio ‘to come (into a situation)’, which is occasionally used as a copular verb in (very) Late Latin, developed into a full copular verb (Fr. devenir, It. diventare).151

Verbs used to express a resulting state in Classical prose are evado ‘to turn out’, exorior ‘to present oneself’, ‘to emerge’, exsis­to ‘to present oneself (in some capaci­ty)’, ‘to arise’, ‘to become’. Examples are (d)–(f). Note in (f) the parallelism with esse.

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

(f) Verb frames

In poetry, the function of this substitution is to replace the colourless verbs fio and sum with verbs with a more ‘concrete’ meaning. As a matter of principle, these (p.206) alternatives should not be regarded as (near-)synonyms of fio and sum. In certain cases one may hesitate whether the constituent is an obligatory complement or rather an optional secondary predicate. So, for instance, in the—unique—instance of exorior from Cicero in (e).

Verb + secondary predicate expressions are not always carefully distinguished from verb + subject complement expressions. An illustration is (g), cited in this context by K.-St.: I.16.

(g) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by verb):

Prose instances:…sic nos videmus, qui oratores evadere non potuerint, eos ad iuris studium devenire. (Cic. Mur. 29); Egregiam hanc alam equitum evasisse ferunt. (Liv. 29.1.11); Nemo dupondii evadit. (Petr. 58.14 (a freedman speaking)—NB: genetivus pretii); (sc. pecora) Quae post tempus nascuntur, fere vitiosa atque inutilia exsistunt. (Var. R. 2.7.7); Ergo illa falsa fuerunt. Quae certe vera extitissent, si Milo admisisset aliquid quod non posset honeste vereque defendere. (Cic. Mil. 64); Hippocratem (et alios)…non ideo quidem medicos fuisse, verum ideo quoque maiores medicos ex­stitisse (Cels. 1 pr. 47);…antequam heres extiterit, proinde fit heres is cui in iure cesserit…(Gaius Inst. 2.35);…fideles non exstitistis…(Vet. Lat. Luc. 16.11; cf. Vulg. fuistis); Ita metopae quae proximae ad angulares triglyphos fiunt non exeunt quadratae sed oblongiores triglyphi dimidia latitudine. (Vitr. 4.3.2);

Poetic instances:…non mihi sat magnus Castoris iret equus. (Prop. 2.7.16);152…et mihi ritu / Manius hic generis prope maior avunculus exit. (Pers. 6.60–1); Inde fit, ut, quotiens existere perfida temptas, / peccatum totiens corrigat illa tuum. (Ov. Ep. 20.113–14);…nec Leo venator veniet nec Virgo magistra…(Manil. 4.382);

Alternatives to the copula sum are rare in prose, but see exsto ‘to exist’ in (h). Lucretius already has a number of instances.

(h) Verb frames

Supplement: Primum animum dico, mentem quem saepe vocamus, / in quo consilium vitae regimenque locatum est, / esse hominis partem nihilo minus ac manus et pes / atque oculei partes animantis totius exstant. (Lucr. 3.94–7—NB: note parallelism);…altis urbibus ultimae / stetere causae cur perirent…(Hor. Carm. 1.16.18–19); Dabitur opera. # Lepidus vivis. (Pl. Trin. 390);153

(p.207) Verbs indicating the physical position of human beings (iaceo ‘to lie’, sedeo ‘to sit’, and sto ‘to stand’) have played a role in the development of the copula in Spanish and other Romance languages. There are a few instances in which these verbs are used without referring to a specific physical position of the subject. An Early Latin instance of sedeo is (i), where it means ‘to be encamped’. Compare also (j) from Cicero. An example of sto discussed in the literature is (k). The verbs in these examples refer to ‘staying somewhere’, the use discussed in § 4.42. In poetry, the use of these verbs in a non-local meaning is attested in examples like (l).154 Instances from Late Latin in which reference to physical position is unlikely are (m) and (n). Real copular use, however, developed later.

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

(k) Verb frames

(l) Verb frames

(m) Verb frames

(n) Verb frames

Appendix: Whereas in the instances discussed above the verbs can be regarded as ‘substitutes’ of existing forms of fio and sum, there are other (Late Latin, mainly ecclesiastical) instances of the use of exsisto in which the verb functions as a ‘suppletion’ for non-existing forms of the verb sum, notably the present participle and the gerund.155 Exx. (o) and (p) show how the Greek original is translated in different ways in the Vetus Latina and Vulgate versions of the Bible (the Greek text has the participle ὑπάρχων‎).

(p.208) (o) Verb frames

(p) Verb frames

Perception verbs in the passive can be used with subject complements. Videor, passive form of video ‘to see’, behaves more or less as a copular verb, meaning ‘to seem’, ‘to look’, as in (q)–(u) (but note the presence of tibi in (q)). In (q), the subject complement is an adjective that shows agreement with the subject, in (r) an idiomatic expression, in (s) a noun phrase that agrees with the subject, in (t) a so-called genetivus possessivus. Videor is also used with a clause as the subject and an evaluative adjective as subject complement (its so-called impersonal use), as in (u).156 Sentio ‘to perceive’ is also used with subject complements, likewise in the passive, as in (v).

(q) Verb frames

(r) Verb frames

(s) Verb frames

(t) Verb frames

(u) Verb frames

(v) Verb frames

Supplement:

principem…se esse mavult quam videri. (Cic. Off. 1.65);…cum ille…tardior tibi erit visus…(Cic. Fam. 7.17.2); Platonicum sese philosophum dicebat et viderier gestiebat. (Gel. 15.2.1);…satis nigrum <et> quasi perustum visum fuerit…(Larg. (p.209) 228); Rex vero licet securitatem praeferens vultu exsultansque specie tenus urbis excidio videbatur…(Amm. 19.9.9);

… nec quicquam ad nos pertinere nisi quod aut leve aut asperum in corpore sentiatur. (Cic. Tusc. 5.73); (sc. empetros) Quae longius magisque terrena, amarior sentitur. (Plin. Nat. 27.74);…eaedem (sc. verae gemmae) namque in ore gelidio­res sentiuntur. (Plin. Nat. 37.199);

Another verb occurring with a subject complement is appareo ‘to be found’, ‘prove to be’, attested from Cicero onwards. Examples are (w)–(y).

(w) Verb frames

(x) Verb frames

(y) Verb frames

Supplement:

Quae, cum sint vetusta, sic apparent recentia, uti si sint modo facta. (Vitr. 2.7.4); Promisi tibi in matrimonium filiam. Postea peregrinus adparuisti. (Sen. Ben. 4.35.1);

Appendix: Audio ‘to hear’ and—later—sono ‘to sound’ are used with a subject complement in poetry, from Catullus onward, presumably under Greek influ­ence,157 with the meaning ‘to be called’, ‘to be spoken of (as)’ (cf. ἀκούω‎). Examples are (z) and (aa).

(z) Verb frames

(aa) Verb frames

Supplement:rexque paterque / audisti coram, nec verbo parcius absens. (Hor. Ep. 1.7.37–8);…ipse subtilis veterum iudex et callidus audis. (Hor. S. 2.7.101); Felix alius magnusque sonet. (Sen. Her. O. 692);

NB: Passive: Cassusne sacerdos audior? (Stat. Theb. 4.504);

The verb clueo (from Seneca onwards also cluo) ‘to be called’, ‘to be reckoned as’ and its passive form clueor (very rare) occur with subject comple­ments. It is relatively frequent in the come­dies of Plautus and in Lucretius, and occurs with some frequen­cy in some Late Latin texts. Examples are (ab) and (ac).

(p.210) (ab) Verb frames

(ac) Verb frames

Supplement: Late instances:…bis seno celsus, Symmache, fasce cluis. (Symm. Ep. 1.1.5 (poet.));…digna memoratu clueat per saecula fama. (Carm. epigr. 650.4 (AD 360));

4.98 Auxiliary verbs

This section deals with auxiliary verbs with the exception of sum in its use in periphrastic verb forms (for which see § 4.92). AUXILIARY VERBS are distinguished from so-called FULL VERBs on the basis of the following defining properties.158

  1. (i) Auxiliaries allow only (present) infinitives of other verbs as their second argument and (almost) no nouns and noun phrases (for exceptions see the note). The other verb may itself be an auxiliary in combination with a full verb, as in (a).

    (a) Verb frames

  2. (ii) The first argument of the infinitive is unexpressed, but is the same as the subject of the auxiliary verb. This can be seen when there is a secondary predicate like primus ‘first’ associated with the infinitive: it agrees with the subject of the auxiliary in number, gender, and case, as in (b).

    (b) Verb frames

  3. (iii) With zerovalent weather verbs, the phasal auxiliaries incipio ‘to begin’ and desino ‘to stop’ are third person singular, as in (c) and (d).

    (c) Verb frames

    (d) Verb frames

  4. (p.211) (iv) Auxiliary and full verb together form an AUXILIARY PHRASE. As far as valency is concerned, the properties of an auxiliary phrase are that of the full verb. This is illustrated by (e)–(h). The structural possibilities of dico and cogito are not affected by the auxiliaries soleo and possum, respectively. Furthermore, the same adjuncts and secondary predicates can be added as could be added to the full verb when used as the main verb in a clause.

    (e) Verb frames

    (f) Verb frames

    (g) Verb frames

    (h) Verb frames

    As example (g) shows, when verbs that are passivizable are used in combination with an auxiliary verb, passivization is still possible. When it occurs, it is the voice of the infinitive that is changed (for the use of the passive with the phasal auxiliary verbs incipio [coepi] and desino, see § 5.13). All other morphosemantic properties, including tense, are carried by the auxiliaries (for perfect infinitives with an anterior meaning, and for idiomatic uses, see § 7.70 and § 7.76). The clausal negator non usually precedes the auxiliary and not the infinitive.

    The infinitive may be unexpressed if it can be understood from the context. A clear example is (i). The infinitive may also be conventionally understood, as in a famous passage from Catullus, (j), where Maeciliam looks like an object of solebant, but where futuere ‘to have sex with’ is understood. Similarly in (k).

    (i) Verb frames

    (j) Verb frames

    (p.212) (k) Verb frames

  5. (v) There are no restrictions on the infinitives auxiliaries can be used with. They are used with animate and inanimate subjects; with dynamic and non-dynamic, with controllable and non-controllable states of affairs; and the infinitive may be active or passive. All three are found with neuter (especially anaphoric, demonstrative, or relative) pronouns as their subject, referring to some state of affairs that is needed, possible, or customary. Illustrations with the verb possum are (l)–(p).

(l) Verb frames

(m) Verb frames

(n) Verb frames

(o) Verb frames

(p) Verb frames

On the basis of these criteria, clear-cut auxiliaries are the modal verbs debeo ‘must’,159 possum ‘to be able to’, ‘to be possible’,‘to be allowed to’, queo ‘to be able’ and nequeo ‘to be unable’;160 the habitual auxiliary soleo ‘to be accustomed to’; and the phasal verbs incipio (coepi) ‘to begin’ and desino ‘to stop’.161

The nouns and noun phrases that do occur as the second argument of auxiliaries are like (q). Telam means ‘working on the tela’ (see texentem telam in l. 285).

(q) Verb frames

(p.213) Apart from its use as copular verb (see § 4.97) videor, in its ‘evidential’ meaning ‘to appear’, ‘to seem’, can be combined with infinitives, as in (r). When used in that way it shares with auxiliaries most of the properties mentioned above, with the exception of the first: its infinitives are not restricted to present infinitives, as is shown by (s), with a perfect infinitive.162

(r) Verb frames

(s) Verb frames

Appendix: Debeo is also used in the meaning ‘to owe’. In that meaning it is commonly found with a noun as its object, which may also be the subject in a passive clause, as in (t). The relationship between the two expressions is not clear. It is customary to derive auxiliary meanings from full verb meanings, but then it is remarkable that there is no trace of the dative with the auxiliary phrase. The alternative is to assume that with the interpretation ‘owe’ an infinitive (for example, dare ‘to give’) became conventionally understood and produced an idiom.163 Note that debeo ‘to owe’ can be combined with an auxiliary, as in (u). Debeo in its modal use is already attested in Plautus, though with only three instances.

(t) Verb frames

(u) Verb frames

Minor companions of auxiliary possum are queo ‘to be able to’ and nequeo ‘to be unable to’. Apart from the uses mentioned above, possum is also found with the meaning ‘to have power’, ‘to have influence’, etc. (OLD s.v. § 8). In this meaning, possum is used with a so-called ‘internal’ or ‘adverbial’ accusative, expressions like quid ‘what’, quantum ‘how much’, plurimum ‘most’, that is adjuncts of degree, as found with the verb valeo ‘to have force or power’. Possum in this meaning therefore is a one-place verb, which, like debeo, may have arisen of conventional omission of an infinitive.

The phasal auxiliary verbs desino and incipio are also both used in a one-place frame with a noun that implies a state of affairs as the subject, as in ex. (v).

(v) Verb frames

(p.214) Desisto ‘to leave off’ and ingredior ‘to embark on’, ‘to begin’, which seem prima facie to be near-synonyms, are also used with an infinitive, but—as far as the limited number of attestations allows us to conclude—are restricted to controllable states of affairs. There is an occasional instance of desisto with febris ‘fever’ as the subject (Cels. 3.3.2), but this looks like an absolute use.164 So these verbs are probably of the type ‘main verb + non-finite clause’.165 The verb pergo (literally ‘to move onward’) is used with an infinitive in its non-literal meaning ‘to proceed’ and is described as ‘quasi verbum auxiliare’.166 Although most instances of pergo + infinitive are clearly controllable, as one expects from its meaning, there are a few exceptions, as in (w) and (x). In (w) ventus is an inanimate subject, although of the type that shares properties with human beings. In (x), the state of affairs is definitely uncontrollable. Pergo is not used with nouns that imply a state of affairs as the subject. Weak evidence, to conclude, for auxiliary status. Cesso ‘to be slow to’ ‘to cease’, by contrast, seems to be a better candidate—see (y)—but it is often one-place, also with animate subjects, and (rarely) used with an ablative constituent (see § 4.29) or a prepositional phrase denoting from what one ceases.

(w) Verb frames

(x) Verb frames

(y) Verb frames

As in other languages, the distinction between auxiliary verbs and full verbs is not clear-cut. A large number of verbs that are normally found with nouns and pronouns as their object are also used in combination with a present infinitive in an auxiliary-like manner.167 One class of verbs that is often mentioned in this connection are verbs denoting will and endeavour, especially the verbs volo ‘to wish’ and studeo ‘to concern oneself with’.168 These verbs are found with object nouns, in the accusative and dative, respectively, as in (z) and (aa). Instead of nouns they can also have clauses as their object, among these a (present) infinitival clause. Further details are discussed in § 15.121.

(p.215) (z) Verb frames

(aa) Verb frames

4.99 Valency of adjectives

Just like verbs, adjectives can be used as the central element of a clause. The most common way is as subject complement in combination with a copular verb, as in (a)–(c). Depending on the meaning of the adjective, one or two entities may be required. Avarus ‘greedy’ in (a) is a one-place adjective, requiring one argument, in this particular instance the subject of the clause. By contrast, cupida ‘eager’ in (b) is a two-place adjective, requiring both an entity that has the property of being desirous and an entity that is desired.169 Cupidus is related to the verb cupio ‘to desire’, which also requires two arguments. Whereas with cupio the second argument is normally in the accusative case, it is marked by the genitive with cupida in (b). The genitive case is normal for arguments of adjectives but it is not the only possibility, as is shown in (c), where the second argument with dignus ‘worthy’ is in the ablative (for further details about the form of second arguments, see §§ 4.100–4.104).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

When one wants to establish the valency of adjectives one encounters similar problems as with verbs (see § 4.1).170 In the first place, second arguments can be left unexpressed, if the context or situation contains sufficient information. Secondly, adjectives can be used ‘absolutely’, as in (d): note the parallelism with the one-place adjectives turpis and petulans. Conversely, avarus, which on the basis of statistical data is a clear-cut one-place adjective, is expanded on the analogy of (p.216) cupidus with a genitive argument by Tacitus in (e). Note here the parallelism with adpetens + genitive (regular) and parcus + genitive (rare, found mainly in poetry and poeticizing prose).

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Arguments are less frequently expressed when adjectives function as attribute at the noun phrase level and even less when they function as head noun (see also § 11.92). This is due to the tendency not to make the information of a clause overly complex. The same goes for adverb phrases.

Apart from functioning as central element at the clause level, adjectives can function as attribute at the noun phrase level and as head of a noun phrase (their so-called substantival use). Adverbs may also be derived from them. In principle, adjectives maintain their valency in all these situations, as in (f)–(h). In (f) cupidus is the attribute of praetor; existimationis bonae is its second argument. In (g) cupidi is a head noun; it governs tui as its second argument and is itself modified by the quantifier multi (note the parallelism with the nouns amici and fautores). In (h) cruce is the argument with the adverb dignius; the adverbial phrase functions as a manner adjunct in its clause.

(f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

(h) Verb frames

Arguments of adjectives belong to various categories. Apart from nouns in a specific case, as illustrated so far, adjectives may govern prepositional phrases (see § 4.103), gerundial and gerundival clauses, as in (i) and (j), infinitival clauses, as in (k), supines, as in (m), and finite clauses, as in (l). These various clauses are discussed in Chapter 17.

(p.217) (i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

(k) Verb frames

(l) Verb frames

(m) Verb frames

Adjectives may also be expanded with various types of optional constituents, just like satellites with verbs at the clause level. These optional constituents are discussed and illustrated in § 11.92.

In the remainder of this section, second arguments of adjectives will be presented in the same order as those with two-place verbs in §§ 4.23–4.45.

4.100 Adjectives governing a dative argument

Adjectives governing a dative argument belong to three semantic classes, which are presented in Table 4.21: helpfulness, interpersonal relations, and similarity and suitability. They correspond to three of the classes of verbs mentioned in § 4.24. Many of these adjectives are also used with one or more other cases. With some of them, prepositional alternatives (especially with ad, also with in) are available or even more

Table 4.21 Classes of adjectives governing a dative second argument

helpfulness

bonus

‘good (for)’

inutilis

‘useless’

opportunus

‘advantageous’

salutaris

‘salutary’

utilis

‘useful’

exitiosus

‘pernicious’

perniciosus

‘ruinous’

interperso-

nal relations

gratus

‘welcome’

iucundus

‘agreeable’

familiaris

‘familiar’

fidus

‘loyal’

infensus

‘hostile’

carus

‘dear’

aequus

‘favourable’

similarity and suitability

propinquus

‘related’

finitimus

‘adjacent’

similis

‘similar’

par

‘equal’

communis

‘common’

aptus

‘suitable’

alienus

‘unfamiliar’

(p.218) common. The dative is preferred over prepositional expressions in poetry and in prose from Livy onwards.

Supplement (for each class in alphabetical order by adjective):

Quibus a servis atque a servorum ducibus caedem fieri senatus et bonorum rei publicae exitiosum fuisset. (Cic. Planc. 88); Qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse et ostentus soli…(Cato Agr. 6.4); Inveteravit enim iam opinio perniciosa rei publicae vobisque periculosa…(Cic. Ver. 1.1); Quod tibi sempiternum / salutare sit. (Pl. Aul. 147–8);

Quo aequior sum Pamphilo…(Ter. An. 429); Meus (sc. gnatus) mihi, suos cuique est carus. (Pl. Capt. 400); Et magis esse illum idoneum qui ipsi sit familiarior. (Ter. Ph. 721); Ero servos multimodis suo fidus. (Pl. Mos. 785—NB: text uncertain); Nam pol mihi grata acceptaque huiu’st benignitas. (Pl. St. 50);…omnium mentes improborum mihi uni maxime sunt infensae et adversae. (Cic. Sul. 29); Quid enim natura nobis iucundius, quid carius esse voluit? (Cic. Ver. 1.112);

Very odd: Multisque suspicionibus volentia plebi facturus habebatur. (Sal. Hist. 4.42); Haec atque talia plebi volentia fuere…(Tac. Ann. 15.36.4);

Ego alienus illi? (Pl. Capt. 146); Mare quidem commune certo est omnibus. (Pl. Rud. 975); Erat in ea nobilissimum regionum earum oppidum coniunctissimumque Octavio. (B. Alex. 47.3); Sumus enim finitimi Atinatibus. (Cic. Planc. 22); Parissimi estis hibus. (Pl. Cur. 506);…agricolae, accolae propinqui qui estis his regionibus…(Pl. Rud. 616); Elephans citra nares ore ipso sternumento similem elidit sonum, per nares autem turbarum raucitati. (Plin. Nat. 11.269);

With a number of adjectives, the constituent in the dative usually refers to an entity for whom something is beneficial (or the opposite), as in (a); what that something is beneficial for (or the opposite) is usually expressed by a prepositional phrase (with ad) or a purpose clause, as in (b) and (c) respectively. The more exceptional use of the dative for this relation is illustrated by (c) (note the parallelism with the ut clauses) and (d).171 Both relations may occur with the same adjective, as in (e), so one might consider regarding these adjectives as three-place.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(p.219) (c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by adjective):

…id in quo prudentia versaretur et quod assequi vellet aptum et accommodatum naturae esse oportere…(Cic. Fin. 5.17); Eiusmodi autem studia ad delectationem quam ad veritatem videntur adcommodatiora. (Rhet. Her. 4.32); Haec autem, ut dixi, genera dicendi aptiora sunt adulescentibus. (Cic. Brut. 326); Terra quae vitibus apta est eadem quoque utilis est arboribus. (Col. Arb. 18.1); Vos quidem…soletis…quam sint omnia in hominis figura non modo ad usum verum etiam ad venustatem apta describere. (Cic. N.D. 1.47); Cf.: O dies hospitiis lepide discriptos et apte ad consilium reditus nostri! (Cic. Att. 16.5.4);…exploratores centurionesque praemittit qui locum castris idoneum deligant. (Caes. Gal. 2.17.2);…tu occupes locum quem idoneum ad vim tuam iudicaris …(Cic. Agr. 2.74);…tris libros in disputatione ac dialogo ‘de Oratore’, quos arbitror Lentulo tuo fore non inutilis. (Cic. Fam. 1.9.23);…constituunt ut ii qui valetudine aut aetate inutiles sint bello oppido excedant…(Caes. Gal. 7.78.1);…quod et acutum genus est et ad usus civium non inutile. (Cic. Fin. 1.12);…ut multas me etiam simultates…intellegam mihi non necessarias, vobis non inutilis suscepisse. (Cic. Man. 71); Tibi enim nota sunt, mihi ad commemorandum non necessaria. (Cic. Div. 1.123); Quare satis admirari nequeo…ceterarum artium minus vitae necessariarum repertos antistites…(Col. 11.1.10);…ratio res ad vitam necessarias sollerter consecuta est. (Cic. Leg. 1.26); Non ego omnino lucrum omne esse utile homini existimo. (Pl. Capt. 325);…dant utile lignum / navigiis pinus…(Verg. G. 2.442–3); (sc. stercus)…quod non solum ad agrum utile, sed etiam ad cibum ita bubus ac subus, ut fiant pingues. (Var. R. 1.38.2—NB: it is not clear where the datives bubus and subus belong);

4.101 Adjectives governing an ablative argument

Just like verbs of abundance and lacking, a number of adjectives with that meaning govern ablative second arguments. Some of them are presented in Table 4.22. The (p.220) genitive is also used with some of these adjectives, in the Augustan period probably in imitation of Greek.172 With some adjectives of lacking, a prepositional phrase (with ab) may be used as well; this seems to be the preferred expression when the argument is a human being.173

Table 4.22 Classes of adjectives governing an ablative argument

abundance

dives

‘rich’

fecundus

‘fruitful’

fetus

‘pregnant’

frequens

‘frequent’

gravis

‘heavy’

onustus

‘laden’

plenus

‘full’

refertus

‘filled’

lacking

immunis

‘devoid of’

liber

‘free from’

nudus

‘bare’

orbus

‘bereaved’

purus

‘pure’

vacuus

‘empty’

viduus

‘bereft of’

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

Supplement (for each class in alphabetical order by adjective):

adjectives of abundance:

ablatives:…qui fuit Ausoniisque olim ditissimus arvis. (Verg. A. 7.537); Viminibus salices fecundae, frondibus ulmi…(Verg. G. 2.446); Talia flammato secum dea corde volutans / nimborum in patriam, loca feta furentibus Austris, / Aeoliam venit. (Verg. A. 1.50–2);…frequens herbis et fertilis ubere campus…(Verg. G. 2.185); Hic regina gravem gemmis auroque poposcit / implevitque mero pateram…(Verg. A. 1.728–9); Verres ornamentis fanorum atque oppidorum habeat plenam domum, villas refertas. (Cic. Ver. 4.126—NB: the ablative is exceptional from Cicero onwards, see § 4.102);…tum cum insula Delus…referta divitiis, parva, sine muro nihil timebat…(Cic. Man. 55);

genitives:…quam dives pecoris, nivei quam lactis abundans. (Verg. Ecl. 2.20); si quis illam invenerit / aulam onustam auri. (Pl. Aul. 611);…cum refertam urbem atque Italiam fanorum haberemus…(Cic. Har. 28);

adjectives of lacking:

ablatives: Inde una centuria facta est, immunis militia. (Liv. 1.43.8);…sic robustus animus et excelsus omni est liber cura et angore…(Cic. Fin. 1.49); Huic tradita urbs est nuda praesidio, referta copiis. (Cic. Att. 7.13.1);…purum est vitio tibi cum tumidum est cor? (Hor. S. 2.3.213); Quorum domus, cum honore ac virtute florerent, (p.221) signis et tabulis pictis erant vacuae. (Cic. Ver. 1.55);…viduus pharetra / risit Apollo. (Hor. Carm. 1.10.11-2);

genitives:…soli isto praetore omnium rerum immunes fuerunt…(Cic. Ver. 5.58); Indoctus quid enim saperet liberque laborum / rusticus…(Hor. Ars 213–14);…orbas auxilique opumque huc / recepit ad se Veneria haec sacerdos me et Palaestram. (Pl. Rud. 349–50); Integer vitae scelerisque purus / non eget Mauris iaculis…(Hor. Carm. 1.22.1–2);…ager autem aridus et frugum vacuos ea tempestate…(Sal. Jug. 90.1);…nec viduum pectus amoris habet. (Ov. Am. 3.10.18);

prepositional phrases: Aliquod tempus immune a legibus miseriae faciunt. (Sen. Con. 2.5.16);…vacui, expertes, soluti ac liberi fuerunt ab omni sumptu, molestia, munere. (Cic. Ver. 4.23); Tam inops autem ego eram ab amicis aut tam nuda res publica a magistratibus? (Cic. Dom. 58); Usque adeo orba fuit ab optimatibus illa contio ut…(Cic. Flac. 54);…forum Syracusanorum, quod introitu Marcelli purum a caede (cj. Turnebus) servatum est…(Cic. Ver. 4.116—NB: the prepositional expression is the normal one); Sed quae tandem est in hac urbe tanta domus ab ista suspicione religionis tam vacua atque pura? (Cic. Har. 11);

More or less isolated is the use of the ablative for the second arguments of dignus ‘worthy’ and indignus ‘unworthy’.174 Examples are (c) and (d). Alternative case forms are the genitive and (later) the dative, on the analogy of other adjectives. By contrast, some other adjectives are occasionally found with the ablative, on the analogy of dignus. See the Supplement.

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

Supplement:

other adjectives: Me tibi istuc aetatis homini facinora puerilia / obicere nec te decora nec tuis virtutibus. (Pl. Mil. 618–19); Et item res humiles et indignas viris fortibus viros fortes propterea contemnere oportere nec idoneas dignitate sua iudicare. (Rhet. Her. 3.5);

genitives: Non ego sum salutis dignus? # Immo salve, Callicles. (Pl. Trin. 1153—NB: cj. Pius); Obsecro te, Cicero, suscipe curam et cogitationem dignissimam tuae virtutis…(Balb. Att. 8.15a.1);…descendam magnorum haud umquam indignus avorum. (Verg. A. 12.649);

dative: Nihil queritur misera nisi par orbitati, nisi matri dignum…((Quint.) Decl. 10.9);

(p.222) 4.102 Adjectives governing a genitive argument

Adjectives that govern a second argument in the genitive belong to four semantic classes. For each class, a number of verbs are presented in Table 4.23. Some of these adjectives are also found with other cases and/or prepositional phrases. For adjectives of desire, prepositional phrases (ad, in) are an alternative; for adjectives of sharing and power, the dative or the ablative; for adjectives of fullness (and especially their opposites), the ablative (see § 4.101).175

Table 4.23 Classes of adjectives governing a genitive argument

desire

avidus

‘greedy’

cupidus

‘eager’

curiosus

‘attentive’

fastidiosus

‘unsatisfied’

securus

‘careless’

socors

‘inert’

studiosus

‘eager’

knowledge

and memory

conscius

‘privy’

gnarus

‘having knowledge’

insolens

‘unaccus-

tomed’

insuetus

‘unaccus-

tomed’

memor

‘mindful’

peritus

‘having knowledge’

prudens

‘aware’

sharing

and power

compos

‘in possession of’

consors

‘sharing’

exheres

‘disinherited’

expers

‘destitute’

potens

‘having power’

proprius

‘belonging to’

sacer

‘holy’

fullness

fertilis

‘fertile’

inanis

‘devoid’

liberalis

‘generous’

plenus

‘full’

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

Supplement (for each class in alphabetical order by adjective):

…quam inhonestae solae sint domi atque avidae cibi…(Ter. Eu. 938);…iuvenis cito prudens, cito pius, cito maritus, cito pater, cito omnis officii curiosus, cito sacerdos, omnia tamquam properans? (Sen. Dial. 6.12.3); C. Memmius L. f. perfectus litteris sed Graecis, fastidiosus sane Latinarum…(Cic. Brut. 247); Ille Sychaeum / impius…/…superat, securus amorum / germanae. (Verg. A. 1.348–51); Nolim (p.223) ceterarum rerum te socordem <eo>dem modo. (Ter. Ad. 695); P. Murena…litterarum et studiosus et non imperitus…(Cic. Brut. 237); Illae (sc. apes) intus trepidae rerum per cerea castra / discurrunt…(Verg. A. 12.589–90);

Rogitas, qui tam audaci’ facinori’ mihi conscius sis? (Ter. Ph. 156); NB: with a dative: Itaque C. Fabricium quem propter familiaritatem Oppianici conscium illi facinori fuisse arbitrabatur reum statim fecit…(Cic. Clu. 56);…inductoresque acerrumos gnarosque nostri tergi…(Pl. As. 551); Nolo ego, soror, me credi esse immemorem viri…(Pl. St. 48); Itaque ille noster amicus, insolens infamiae, semper in laude versatus…(Cic. Att. 2.21.3);…timeo tam vehemens vir tamque acer in ferro et tam insuetus contumeliae ne…dolori et iracundiae pareat. (Cic. Att. 2.21.4);…bellique peritus / quos ubi rex Epulo spexit de cotibus celsis…(Enn. Ann. 423-4V=407–8S); C. Quinctius fuit P. Quincti huius frater, sane ceterarum rerum pater familias et prudens et attentus…(Cic. Quinct. 11);

…domum laudis compos revenit. (Pl. Am. 642);…socium potius et consortem gloriosi laboris amiseram. (Cic. Brut. 3);…in ea causa quaesitum est de iure civili, possetne paternorum bonorum exheres esse filius…(Cic. de Orat. 1.175); NB: with an ablative:…ut ego exheredem meis bonis me faciam…(Pl. Mos. 234); (sc. ferae) Sunt enim rationis et orationis expertes. (Cic. Off. 1.51); NB: with an ablative: Ea res me domo expertem facit. (Pl. Per. 509);…praepotentes pulchre / pacisque potentes, soror, fuimus…(Pl. Poen. 1182–2a); Viri autem propria maxime est fortitudo…(Cic. Tusc. 2.43); Qua ex opinione hominum illa insula eorum deorum sacra putatur…(Cic. Ver. 1.48);

…multos fertiles agros alios aliorum fructuum. (Cic. N.D. 2.131); Nam haec quidem edepol larvarum plena est. (Pl. Am. 777);…omnium me exilem atque inanem fecit aegritudinum. (Pl. St. 526);…oratorem descripseras, inopem quendam humanitatis atque inurbanum. (Cic. de Orat. 2.40); Laudis avidi, pecuniae liberales erant. (Sal. Cat. 7.6);

The genitive is also used for the second arguments of present participles in -ans and -ens, instead of the accusative the verbs normally take, when they express a permanent quality and function as attribute or subject (or object) complement, and are not anchored as secondary predicate to the time of the main verb of the clause.176 While some of the verbs involved fit in with one of the meaning classes discussed above, there is no obvious restriction on which participles can be used with the genitive. Examples are (e)–(g). Cupio in (e) is occasionally found with a genitive object (compare the adjective cupidus), but that is not a condition for the use of the genitive, as the other examples show. Note in (f) the parallelism of amantem uxoris with the adjectives siccum, frugi, and continentem.

(e) Verb frames

(p.224) (f) Verb frames

(g) Verb frames

Supplement:

…Acheruntis pabulum, / flagiti persequentem / stabulum nequitiae. (Pl. Cas. 159–61); Eru’ liberalis est et fugitans litium. (Ter. Ph. 623); Educta, ut par est, expars malitiis, metuens sui…(Turp. com. 157);…multis etiam pater, optimus vir, nimium retinens equestris iuris et libertatis videtur. (Cic. Planc. 55); Eques Romanus locuples, sui negoti bene gerens…procuratorem Romae reliquit. (Cic. Quinct. 62); Nam consules modesti legumque metuentes impediebantur lege…(Cic. Red. Sen. 4); Horum igitur exprimere mores oratione iustos, integros, religiosos, timidos, perferentis iniuriarum mirum quiddam valet. (Cic. de Orat. 2.184); Sed existimant plerique non haec adiuvantia causarum, sed has ipsas esse omnium causas…(Cic. Tim. 50); Genus hominum salubri corpore, velox, patiens laborum. (Sal. Jug. 17.6); (sc. flumen)…non tamen navium patiens est…(Liv. 21.31.11); Mores huius pecudis probabiles habentur qui sunt propiores placidis quam concitatis, sed non inertes, qui sunt verentes plagarum et adclamationum…(Col. 6.2.14);…ut est (sc. populus) novarum rerum cupiens pavidusque. (Tac. Ann. 15.46.1);…rhetoricus quidam sophista utriusque linguae callens…(Gel. 17.5.3); Bonitas amplius delicias adiecit homini, ut, quamquam totius orbis possidens, in amoenioribus moraretur…(Tert. Marc. 2.4.4);

These participial forms resemble adjectives. They can be used in the comparative and superlative and they have negative counterparts formed by the prefix in-. Examples are (h)–(j) respectively.

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

(p.225) Supplement:

Sed homo nec doctior nec sanctior fieri potest nec tui meique amantior. (Cic. Att.6.1.12); Virum fortissimum, integerrimum, inimicitiarum persequentissimum…(Rhet. Her. 2.29); PORCIA…CHRESTE / AMANTISSIMA·SUIS / MONUMENTUM·FECIT·SE / VIVA·SIBI·ET…(CIL VI.9133 (Rome));…altaque iactat / vulneris impatiens arrecto pectore crura…(Verg. A. 11.638–9); Omnis tamen externi frigoris tolerantior equino armento vacca est…(Col. 6.22.2); Lycurgus…fuit severissimarum iustissimarumque legum auctor et disciplinae convenientissimae iis…(Vell. 1.6.3); Nihil est tam violentum, tam incontinens sui, tam contumax infestumque retinentibus quam magna vis undae. (Sen. Nat. 3.30.6);

There are only few instances of present participles governing a genitive in Early Latin of verbs that do not require a genitive object. I count six instances in Bennett’s Syntax (all attribute or subject complement, it seems). This is less than the number of present participles that govern their regular (non-genitive) case (all secondary predicate, it seems). Apart from these instances there are also present participles that govern an argument clause.177 The elaborate clausal use of participles starts in the Classical period. See § 11.41 on the use of present participles as attribute and Chapter 21 on their use as secondary predicate.178

Second arguments in the genitive are common with adjectives in -āx, a phenomenon that is typical of poetry and from Livy onwards also of prose. Most of these adjectives are related to a verbal stem. An isolated early instance is (k), which, however, Plautus may have treated as an adjective of ‘knowing and memory’.

(k) Verb frames

(l) Verb frames

(m) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by adjective):

Tempus edax rerum, tuque, invidiosa vetustas, / omnia destruitis…(Ov. Met. 15.234–5); (sc. boves)…multi cibi edaces, verum in eo conficiendo lenti. (Col. 6.2.14);…mandragoram illum gravedinis compertae famosum et morti simillimi soporis efficacem. (Apul. Met. 10.11.2); Haud dubie illa aetate, qua nulla virtutum feracior fuit, nemo unus erat vir quo magis innixa res Romana staret. (Liv. 9.16.19); Unde isti norunt illum quondam gloriae sequentis fugacissimum…(Sen. Ben. 4.32.4);…quid iam dudum decreveritis de isto asino…nunc etiam mendaci fictae (p.226) debilitatis…(Apul. Met. 6.31.4);…gener, amicus, cunctis vitae officiis aequabilis, opum contemptor, recti pervicax, constans adversus metus. (Tac. Hist. 4.5.2); Minus hoc quam par erat nostri celebravere, omnium utilitatium et virtutum rapacissimi…(Plin. Nat. 25.4); Iustum et tenacem propositi virum / non civium ardor prava iubentium, / non voltus instantis tyranni / mente quatit solida…(Hor. Carm. 3.3.1–4);

4.103 Adjectives governing a prepositional argument

A number of prepositions are used to mark second arguments of adjectives. In Early Latin and in Cicero and Caesar the most common prepositions are ab for various ‘separative’ relations and ad for abstract ‘direction’. In is rarely used with adjectives indicating local ‘direction’; from Livy onwards it is used more frequently in situations in which ad was common. Cum is used with adjectives that imply the involvement of two entities (as with the verbs discussed in § 4.38). De is common in the combination certiorem facio de ‘to inform someone about’, but is also used with other adjectives of knowledge and memory, with which the genitive is normal (see § 4.102).

Ab is rarely used with adjectives that indicate ‘separating oneself from’. An example is (a). Its use with adjectives indicating ‘difference’ is illustrated by (b); its use with adjectives of lacking, by (c), if a multis vitiis is really an argument. For this class, see also § 4.101.

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(c) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by adjective):179

(sc. Aeschinus) Alienus est ab nostra familia. (Ter. Ad. 326); At mea seposita est et ab omni milite dissors / gloria…(Ov. Am. 2.12.12–13);

Eo anno cum et foris quieta omnia a bello essent et domi sanata discordia…(Liv. 2.34.1—NB: probably an analogical extension); Hora nulla vacua a furto, scelere, crudelitate, flagitio reperietur. (Cic. Ver. 1.34);

(p.227) Ad is used as a marker of second arguments with adjectives indicating ‘inclination’ and with adjectives indicating ‘similarity and suitability’, with which the dative is used as well (see § 4.100, exx. (a)–(e) and Supplement). Examples are (d) and (e).

(d) Verb frames

(e) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by adjective):180

Erat ei consilium ad facinus aptum…(Cic. Catil. 3.16);…nec clam te est quam illi nunc utraeque inutiles / et ad pudicitiam et ad rem tutandam sient. (Ter. An. 288–9); An ille demens et iam pridem ad poenam exitiumque praeceps foedior aut inquinatior in Cn. Pompeio accusando quam in universo senatu vituperando fuit? (Cic. Har. 51);

Cum is used as a marker of second arguments with adjectives that require an associative. An example is (f).

(f) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by adjective):181

Vis hostilis cum istoc fecit meas opes aequabilis. (Pl. Capt. 302);…hoc foedere Catuli senatusque auctoritate se nobiscum coniunctissimos esse arbitrati sunt. (Cic. Balb. 39);…civitas secum ipsa discors intestino inter patres plebemque flagrabat odio…(Liv. 2.23.1);

De as marker of a second argument with adjectives of knowledge and memory is illustrated by (g).

(g) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by adjective):182

…se audisse ex Curione his de rebus conscium esse Pisonem…(Cic. Att. 2.24.3); (sc. Helvetii)…de caede Galbae ignari et Vitellii imperium abnuentes. (Tac. Hist. 1.67.1);…et antiquo memores de vulnere poenas / exigit alma Venus…(Ov. Met. 14.477–8);…Cn. Tremelium Scrofam…qui de agri cultura Romanus peritissimus existimatur. (Var. R. 1.2.10);

(p.228) In as marker of local ‘direction’ is illustrated by (h). In (i) it marks the second argument of an adjective of interpersonal relation. More abstract ‘direction’ is illustrated by (j). In this function it takes the place of ad.

(h) Verb frames

(i) Verb frames

(j) Verb frames

Supplement (in alphabetical order by adjective):183

Athenienses maxime in eam rem idonei visi sunt…(Liv. 35.32.7); Intentiorque Carvilius…in Aquiloniam quam ad Cominium quod obsidebat erat. (Liv. 10.39.7);…interdum imponere iis puerum bis aut ter [interdum] pronum in ventrem, postea iam sedentem. (Var. R. 2.7.13);…propensior in Cn. Pompei amicitiam fuisset quam in tuam. (Cic. Deiot. 9);

4.104 Extent of space expressions with dimensional adjectives

With dimensional adjectives such as altus ‘high’, crassus ‘thick’, latus ‘wide’, and longus ‘long’ a constituent indicating the extent of space covered is normally required.184 These constituents can be expressed with more or less the same means as are used on the clause level (for which see § 4.84 and § 10.18–21), viz. bare accusative (from Early Latin onwards), later also ablative and genitive, case forms and—rarely—prepositional expressions. An example of an accusative noun is (a), of an ablative (b), of a genitive (c). A rare instance of a prepositional expression indicating the dimension is (d).

(a) Verb frames

(b) Verb frames

(p.229) (c) Verb frames

(d) Verb frames

An exceptional extent of time expression with longus in its temporal meaning ‘long’ is (e).

(e) Verb frames

Appendix: Exceptional are instances like (f) where hanc rem is the argument of gnaruris (esse); it is in the accusative as with a verb of knowing. More instances are attested in Late Latin.185

(f) Verb frames

Supplement:

…faciamque ut uno fetu et quod gravida est viro / et me quod gravida est pariat sine doloribus. (Pl. Am. 878–9);…at enim scies ea quae fuisti nescius. (Turp. com. 65); Qui ventura providus…multis erat exosus…(Amm. 27.9.2);

Notes:

(1) For a typological treatment of Latin valency, see Lehmann (2002).

(2) For the verbs which are used with ab in this way, see TLL s.v. ab 18.71ff. For the description of this use of peto, see TLL s.v. 1961.71ff.

(3) This is my paraphrase of the description of the TLL s.v. peto 1961.71ff.

(4) The term ‘support verbs’ is an adaptation from French ‘verbes de support’. In German the term ‘Funktionsverb’ has become common. Quirk et al. (1985: 750–2) use the term ‘eventive object’. For terminology and a survey of noun/verb combinations, see Rosén (1981: 130–59). For support verbs, see also Flobert (1996) and Hoffmann (1996, forthc.). For tests for distinguishing support verb constructions, see Langer (2004), Ros (2005: 417–18), and Baños (2012). For the use of another type of verbs that ‘are notoriously poor in semantic content’ in Virgil, see Görler (1999).

(5) For more examples, see TLL s.v. do 1686.33ff.

(6) For Ovid’s practice, see Bömer ad Ov. Met. 2.165.

(7) For ago and facio, see López Moreda (1987). For do, see Martín Rodríguez (1996a). For affero, see Hoffmann (1996: 204–10, 2005). For accipio, see Brunet (2008). For capio, see García González (2014). For the use of support verbs with sermonem and verba, see Roesch (2001). For bellum gero, see Baños (2013).

(8) See Hoffmann (1996: 203). Schøsler (2003: 409–11) has a brief comparison of Cicero’s de Inventione and an Early French and a Modern French translation. She shows that the Latin original and the Modern French translation have far fewer support verb constructions than the Early French one, and that support verb constructions are very unstable over time. For the use of verbal nouns in combination with a support verb instead of simple verbs, especially in didactic texts, see Langslow (2000: 408–16), with references.

(9) For a very complete and careful study of two-place verbs in Cicero, see Lebreton (1901a: ch. IV).

(10) For a different approach, in which more variants of valency are accepted for one and the same verb although there is no difference in meaning involved, see Happ (1976: 445–9).

(11) For contexts in which absolute use of two-place verbs is common, see Dressler (1970: 32), Happ (1976: 239–61, 438–41) (who uses the term ‘Ellipse’), and Sznajder (1998). For a detailed discussion of the absolute use of two-place amo in Ovid and the conditions for its correct interpretation, see Hoffmann (1997a: 57–9).

(12) See OLD s.v. bibo §§ 7–10.

(13) See Happ (1976: 226–38).

(14) For this approach, see Hopper and Thompson (1982). For an application to Latin, see Johnson (1991) and Spevak (2010a: 115–25).

(15) See, for example, Serbat’s discussion (1981: 150–4) of Happ (1976) and Jacobs (1994).

(16) See also Happ’s summary of his Ciceronian sample (1976: 473–6).

(17) Some scholars use the term ‘unipersonal’.

(18) As is shown in § 5.5, passivized two-place verbs are often to be interpreted as agentless and so, in a sense, are also one-place. However, because we are dealing with a productive phenomenon, they are excluded from this section.

(19) On the cognate object, see Rosén (1981: 101–27, 1996b) and de la Villa (2007, 2014). For the type of verbs, see Baños (2014a: 772–6).

(20) For a survey of ‘figura etymologica’ combinations, see Müller (1908: 12–34).

(21) For cognate accusatives without an attribute, see Landgraf (1881: 14–18).

(22) The fullest survey of examples is Müller (1908). For its use in comedy, and especially its frequency in the ‘Langvers’ in Plautus, see Haffter (1934: 10–43).

(23) See Baños (2007: 27–31).

(24) For in + ablative expressions, see Baños (2007: 31–4).

(25) For parallels, see Stockert ad loc.

(26) See TLL s.v. liceo 1362.53ff.

(27) For nominal subjects, see TLL s.v. oportet 745.38ff.

(28) The most complete collection of examples and a defence of ‘impersonal’ est can be found in Svennung (1922: 78–81).

(29) For a convincing alternative reading and additional examples, see Gratwick (2002). See also Adams (2005b: 94).

(30) On these expressions, see Ripoll (2007: 146–7).

(31) For more instances of personal and impersonal forms of habeo, see TLL s.v. habeo 2461.56ff.; for facio, TLL s.v. facio 99.45ff. For a discussion of the prehistory of Spanish hay, see Luque (1978). Other developments, and Greek influence on these, are discussed by García Hernández (1992). For habeo in the Peregrinatio, see Stengaard (2008).

(32) Joffre (1995: 44), following Feltenius (1977), deals with such cases as instances of intransitivization (see § 5.30).

(33) See Happ (1976: 234–6) for Latin and Larjavaara (2000) for French.

(34) See TLL s.v. moveo 1546.9ff. and Oakley ad loc.

(35) They are ‘high’ on the ‘transitivity scale’ of Hopper and Thompson (1982). For the semantic frames of two-place verbs, see Dik (1997: I.120–4) and Givón (2001: I.126–36).

(36) The best survey of effected objects can be found in Müller (1908: 4–12, 34–55).

(37) For this nominative plural form, see TLL s.v. hic 2699.69ff.

(38) For very Late Latin instances of iuvo + dat., see TLL s.v. 747.74ff.

(39) The most complete discussion is Serbat (1996b). See also Pinkster (2011).

(40) For the function of the dative as experiencer, see Bolkestein (1983, 2001a). Scherer (1975: 126), Stassen (2009: 49–50), and others regard the dative constituent as a satellite and sum as locative or existential. Statistical, semantic, and pragmatic characteristics of the possessive dative construction can be found in Baldi and Nuti (2010: 254–305). See also Bennett (1910/14: II.159–66), Löfstedt (1963b), Bolkestein (1983a; 2001a), García Hernández (1993, 1994: 383–9, 1995), Magni (1999), and Cabrillana (2003) [on the differences between genitive and dative], (2006) [a diachronic study], and (2010a: 100–2). For individual authors, see Schenk (1892) on Cicero, Schunck (1900) on Plautus and Cicero, and Önnerfors (2002) on Pliny the Elder.

(41) The translation is by Jim Adams (p.c.).

(42) On the gradual replacement of the possessive dative, see Ramos (1998). Önnerfors (2002) mentions 760 possessive dative constructions versus 232 habeo + object constructions in Plin. Nat. 7–11.

(43) For instances, see TLL s.v. libet 1325.77ff., 1326.12ff.

(44) For the relative frequency of these verbs, see TLL s.v. egeo 233.48ff.

(45) See TLL s.v. magnus 147.55ff. Torrego (2014) deals with these value expressions with sum as subject complement.

(46) The most complete survey of these verbs can be found in Nutting (1928a).

(47) For instances with an accusative, see TLL s.v. fruor 1423.66ff.

(48) For the use of the cases in various authors, see TLL s.v. potior 334.16ff.

(49) For Greek influence, see Calboli (2009: 81–2), with references.

(50) The genitive is called a ‘Genitiv des Sachbetreffs’ in German terminology. See Sz.: 82, with references.

(51) Certainly a Graecism, see Mayer (1999: 161–2).

(52) The most complete study is still Babcock (1901). A summary in Bauer (2009).

(53) Priscian uses the term ‘verba aequiperantia’ (III.274.3f.K).

(54) For a very complete list of verbs (also including three-place verbs), see TLL s.v. cum 1370.20ff. For com compounds, see Revuelta (forthc.).

(55) See Mayer (1999: 167–8). Not necessarily a Graecism according to Calboli (2009: 96–7).

(56) For verbs of position in Latin, see Stengaard (1991: 29–59); also Hoffmann (1996: 203).

(57) For examples of direction arguments, see Cabrillana (1997b). A number of direction expressions (found with proficiscor and mitto) are discussed by Spevak (2010a: 164–71) and treated as arguments.

(58) For the late use of the dative instead of an ad-expression under the influence of the Greek original, see Vet. Lat. Num. 32.16 et accesserunt ei, discussed by August. Locut. Hept. 4.114: Et accesseruntei et dicebant. Non dicit quod usitatum est: accesserunt ad eum. See also de la Villa (1999b: 294–5).

(59) For the direction verb frame of verbs of seeing, see Torrego (2003, 2007).

(60) So Adams (2013: 260–3). For Pliny the Elder and a few other instances in Cicero, see Pinkster (2005b: 245). For the verb frame of disto, see Torrego (2014).

(61) For possible Etruscan influence (matronymic), see Adams (2003b: 173).

(62) For discussion and references, see Pasoli (1966: 69–75).

(63) I thank Jeremy Brightbill and Branden Kosch for a detailed analysis of the verbs involved.

(64) Álvarez Huerta (2010a) argues that the verb timeo has two semantically different two-place frames.

(65) See Blake (2001: 39, 145).

(66) For the various constructions in which paenitet can be used, see Baños (2003). For the older instances of these expressions, see Traina (1963, 1999: 21–4).

(67) For Late Latin examples, see TLL s.v. paeniteo 62.56 ff.

(68) See Petersmann ad loc.

(69) For this example and the use of subjects with this class of verbs in general, see Fugier (2001: 345–50).

(70) For discussion, see Löfstedt (1936: 130–42).

(71) For possible explanations (nominative mea res fert or ablative mea re fert), see Sz.: 84.

(72) Ex. (g) is regarded as an instance of contamination of cui rei te adsimulare profuit and quidretulit by Sz.: 84. See also TLL s.v. 2289.34 ff. and elsewhere for the variety of constructions of interest.

(73) These verbs have been studied by Lemaire (1983), who gives a list (to be used with care) on pp. 321–4.

(74) See TLL s.v. condono 157.1ff.

(75) For a recent survey of the literature and the argumentation involved, see Baños (1996c, 2000) and Adams (2013: 278–94).

(76) Baños (2000: 13) has a table that illustrates this well. Vincent (1999), following Molinelli (1996), and Iliescu (1999) have taken these examples as exchangeable. See, however, Martín Rodríguez (1986), Pinkster (1990), Rosén (1999: 137–49), and Baños (2000) for further discussion. The material can be found in TLL s.v. ad 557.78ff. For Semitic influence on the use of ad with communication verbs in Latin versions of the Old Testament, see Sznajder (2012a).

(77) For the verb frame of suadeo (and persadeo), see Tarriño (2007).

(78) For a short history of these verbs and references, see Sz.: 115. See also von Geisau (1916).

(79) See K.-St.: I.474–5 (‘sogenannter griechischer Genetiv’); Mariani (2004: 34–6); Calboli (2009: 79–81).

(80) See Svennung (1935: 226ff.).

(81) For more instances, see Bennett (1914: II.91–2).

(82) See TLL s.v. misceo 1088.73ff.

(83) For these instances, see Asensio (2002: 17–18, 22).

(84) For the various patterns of the verb muto, see Martín Puente and Santos Guzmán (2002).

(85) For statistical data, see Martín Rodríguez (1996b).

(86) A convincing analysis is Nutting (1927, 1928b—where all Classical and Silver instances can be found). See also OLD s.v. facio § 22b; s.v. fio § 12a; TLL s.v. facio 103.73ff. See also § 4.86 on verbs of sacrificing.

(87) For a survey of the development, see Sz.: 76.

(88) For a survey of examples, see Perotti (1987: 379–81).

(89) For the various frames of accuso in Late Latin, see Roca (2003).

(90) The most detailed study is Laing (1920). Torrego (2014a) deals with value expressions with these verbs as object complements.

(91) As is the analysis in Burkard and Schauer (2000: 482–3).

(92) For a full list of verbs (including two-place verbs), see TLL s.v. cum 1370.20ff. See also von Geisau (1916).

(93) For result expressions with cum, see Martín Puente and Santos Guzmán (2002).

(94) For more examples, see TLL s.v. doceo 1731.54ff.

(95) For a historical survey of the verbs involved, see Sz.: 43.

(96) See Löfstedt 1942: I.204ff.

(97) For a historical explanation of the idiomatic use of fidibus, see Ripoll (forthc., 2013). For the verbs with which it is used, see TLL s.v. fides2, 693.16ff.

(98) See TLL. s.v. doceo 1732.74ff. and edoceo 107.80ff.

(99) A few other patterns are cited in TLL s.v. celo 768.3ff.

(100) For these double accusatives, see Adams (2013: 323–5).

(101) For the Mulomedicina Chironis, see Ahlquist (1909: 36–7). For double accusatives with verbs like aspergo and impleo in the Apicius text, see Milham (1959).

(102) For a discussion of this and the following example, see Jacquinod (1992) and Keulen ad loc.

(103) For a survey of verbs, see Sz.: 45. For examples, most from didactic texts, see Löfstedt (1936: 145–53) and Svennung (1935: 226–31).

(104) For these verbs, see Lehmann (1983) and Serbat (1998).

(105) For object incorporation, see Fugier (1994), with references.

(106) For ludos facio, see Baños (2012).

(107) J. N. Adams (p.c.).

(108) See Sz.: 46 for a few late instances. For incorporations in prehistoric times as in vendo (< venum do), see Flobert (1996). For a possible instance in Palladius 3.30, see Ortoleva (2012).

(109) TLL s.v. contineo 703.23ff. interprets the verb in instances like (e) as meaning cingo ‘to surround’. Castris would probably be regarded as instrumental.

(110) K.-St.: I.588–95 use the term ‘Prägnante Konstruktion der Präpositionen’.

(111) Examples in K.-St.: I.593.

(112) For Pliny and a few other instances in Cicero, see Pinkster (2005b: 245).

(113) These translations are taken from the OLD.

(114) For a discussion of extent of space expressions with these verbs, see Torrego (2008) and Cabrillana (2014: 223–5).

(115) This is a quotation of Lucilius in Gellius 1.16.2, where Gellius explains that mille is singular, because otherwise it would have been ‘mille sunt’. But in reality mille is not the subject of est but a distance expression in the accusative.

(116) For further examples of intervallo + genitive, see TLL s.v. 2295.15ff.

(117) In K.-St.: I.384–5 and Sz.: 121 the ablative is taken as an argument that is equivalent to an accusative.

(118) For prepositional expressions and ablative noun phrases, see Bulhart (1955).

(119) For more examples, see TLL s.v. habeo 2444.19ff., 2458.83ff. and OLD s.v. habeo § 24.

(120) So already Thielmann (1885b: 383) on invisum habeo aliquem ‘I hate somebody’. See also Jacob (1995) and Wehr (2012). For the copular characteristics of habeo, see Benveniste (1960). For more examples, see TLL s.v. habeo 2424.42ff. For such instances in the Mulom. Chir., see Adams (2013: 628–9).

(121) A large number of instances can be found in Müller (1908: 155–7).

(122) For dico, see Ramos (2007a: 167–8). For facio, see Bodelot (2012a)

(123) For this use of hoc, see TLL s.v. hic 2707.54ff.

(124) See Skutsch ad loc. and Rosén (1996b: 132–3) on the ‘cognate nominative’.

(125) Including LSS § 1.1, note 4. For a discussion of the status of sum, see Hoffmann (1997a: 38–42).

(126) For arguments against the ‘dummy hypothesis’, see Stassen (1997: 65–76) and Cabrillana (2010a: 22–7).

(127) For other factors that favour the initial position of forms of sum, see Adams (1994b: 69–81).

(128) For these two properties, see Cabrillana (1998).

(129) For a typological treatment of the verb ‘to be’, see Feuillet (1998).

(130) Happ (1976: 560) distinguishes six types of sum. See Serbat (1983) for criticism and for the position that only two types should be distinguished: existential sum and copulative (meaningless) sum. Adams (1994b) distinguishes two types of sum (apart from the auxiliary use). Pezzini (2011: 340) suggests that contraction of the form est (to st) is more common with the auxiliary use than with the existential and other uses. The status of the verb ‘to be’ is also much debated by philosophers.

(131) For statistical data, see Lease (1919: 264–6). See also Garuti (1954). For the future infinitive in Seneca, see § 7.72.

(132) For more examples and references, see Pettersson (1930: 91–3), Sörbom (1935: 151ff.), Blomgrén (1937: 68ff.), Sz.: 422.

(133) For Varro’s usage, see Marouzeau (1910a: 288–91) and Laughton (1960: 10). For Virgil, see Görler (1985: 274). The most complete collection of omissions of sum (in its various functions) in Virgil and other poets is still Leo (1878: 184–93). For examples of omission of the auxiliary of perfect forms of deponent verbs in Tacitus and a few other authors, see Sörbom (1935: ch. 5), with critical discussion in Goodyear’s commentary (1972: I, appendix 5).

(134) See Goodyear (previous footnote).

(135) For maneo, see TLL s.v. 290.13ff.

(136) For more examples, see Cabrillana (2010a: 31–4).

(137) On existential escit, see Fraenkel (1964: II.444–5 (‘vorhanden sein’)).

(138) For problems concerning the reading, date, and interpretation of (a), see Solin (2003) and Hartmann (2005: 143–6, 202, 262ff.). The various ownership expressions on objects are discussed by Agostiniani (1983).

(139) See Bakkum (2009: 415).

(140) For a discussion of two exceptions in Cicero, both quotations from the Lex. XII: ‘Adversus hostem aeterna auctoritas’ (Lex XII.3.7 = Cic. Off. 1.37); ‘Ne sumptuosa respersio, ne longae coronae, ne acerrae’ (Lex XII.10.6 = Cic. Leg. 2.60), see Daube (1956: 103–11).

(141) For typological observations, see Stassen (1997: 64–5).

(142) See Cabrillana (2007).

(143) For a classification of types of absence, see Sz.: 420–1. See also Eklund (1970: 137–9). References in Sz.: 423.

(144) For nominal relative clauses, see Touratier (1980b: 467–82).

(145) For nominal sentences in Livy, see Pettersson (1930: 89–100).

(146) For the reading and similar instances, see Petersmann ad loc.

(147) For more instances in Seneca, see Charney (1943).

(148) See Fraenkel (1966).

(149) For more instances, see Laughton (1960: 10).

(150) See discussion in Touratier (1980b: 479–82) and Stassen (1997: ch. 3).

(151) See TLL s.v. devenio 580.77ff.

(152) See TLL s.v. eo 650.35ff.; s.v. exeo 1364.42ff.; s.v. exsisto 1874.35ff.; s.v. exsto 1934.25ff.

(153) For instances of vivo ‘to live’ as a poetic alternative for the copula, see Heerdegen (1913) (with critical remarks in Hofmann 1924).

(154) See Campos (1973) and Stengaard (1991: 29–59). See also Pinkster (1987a: 215–19) on the use of sto.

(155) Abundant examples in TLL s.v. exsisto 1875.33ff.

(156) See Joffre (1995: 132–43); Orlandini (1996b: 417–18) and Heberlein (2002: 176–8), also for other uses of videor. See also § 4.98 for its auxiliary use.

(157) See Coleman (1975: 137). For Greek examples, see K.-G.: I.43.

(158) For a discussion of the status of auxiliaries in Latin, see Scherer (1975: 124); Happ (1976: 482–4); Touratier (1994: 560–4). For theoretical discussion, see also Heberlein (2002).

(159) For the modal use of debeo, see Bolkestein (1980: ch. 11, on which see also Heberlein 2002: 172–4) and Martín Rodríguez (2002), with references.

(160) For nequeo, see Moussy (2002).

(161) Happ, not using criterion (iv), on the basis of his corpus also reckons audeo ‘to dare’ and conor ‘to try’ among the auxiliaries.

(162) For further examples, see OLD s.v. 20.d. See also Heberlein (2002: 176–8).

(163) So Touratier (1994: 561).

(164) See TLL s.v. 731.46–7.

(165) In the terminology of Quirk et al. (1985: 137).

(166) So TLL s.v. 1432.71ff., where references to more inanimate subjects can be found as well.

(167) For the ‘auxiliary verb–main verb scale’ in English, see Quirk et al. (1985: 137).

(168) See K.-St.: I.667 and Sz.: 346.

(169) Wölfflin (1904) uses the term ‘adiectiva relativa’.

(170) For a discussion of the problems one encounters when trying to determine the valency of adjectives (on the basis of Var. R.), see Bodelot (2011).

(171) OLD s.v utilis § 1 makes an explicit distinction between a dative ‘of advantage’ and ‘of purpose’. See § 10.70 for a discussion of two types of beneficiary adjuncts.

(172) For possible Greek influence, see Calboli (2009: 94). For the Greek adjectives involved, see K.-G.: I.401.

(173) See K.-St.: I.374.

(174) K.-St.: I.398 relate it to the use of the ablative with verbs of competing (see § 4.53). Sz.: 79; 128 considers it an ‘instrumental ablative’.

(175) For a succinct historical sketch, see Sz.: 77–81.

(176) For the history of this use of present participles, see Wölfflin (1904: 410–12). For Cicero’s use of the present participle, see Laughton (1964).

(177) See Bennett (1914: II.82–7); Marouzeau (1910b: 13–22).

(178) For the development of the present participle, see Rosén (1999: 98–109).

(179) For more instances, see TLL s.v. ab 11.66ff.

(180) For more instances, see TLL s.v. ad 505.24ff., 509.37, 541.32ff.

(181) For more instances, see TLL s.v. cum 1374.33ff.

(182) For more instances, see TLL s.v. de 77.21ff.

(183) For more instances, see TLL s.v. in 745.73ff., 750.6ff., 761.79ff.

(184) On the status of these extent in space expressions (argument or satellite?), see Bodelot (2011: 12–14).

(185) For examples and references, see Sz.: 34.