Spatial integration was fundamental to the development of more complex and differentiated structures in the economic and political spheres. The resource base in pre-industrial economies, or organic economies, is characterised by the low level of energy availability and the role played by the produce of the land as the ultimate source of nearly all raw material and energy inputs. These two features of organic economies imposed heavy and restrictive costs on the societies that depended on them and limited the resources that they had available to meet such costs. The reliance on organic resources imposed structural constraints that limited what could be achieved in the sphere of production. The constraints and inefficiencies endemic to organic economies set limits to what rulers could achieve in the long term, but in the short term they also created opportunities.
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