This concluding chapter presents a synthesis of the topics discussed in this volume. Against the idea that justice requires us to neutralize the effects of differences in people's circumstances, it has been argued that it requires us merely to mitigate these effects, to prevent them from having an undue impact upon people's relative access to advantage. Competing versions of this mitigation approach include different sets of principles, which give different determinations of what is to count as an ‘undue effect’. Such principles are defended and this provides a vision of what it is to level the playing field that is rather different, at least at the level of fundamentals, from what is in the neutralization approach.
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