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Flavius Josephus and Flavian Rome$
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Jonathan Edmondson, Steve Mason, and James Rives

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780199262120

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199262120.001.0001

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Herodians and Ioudaioi in Flavian Rome

Herodians and Ioudaioi in Flavian Rome

Chapter:
(p.63) 3 Herodians and Ioudaioi in Flavian Rome
Source:
Flavius Josephus and Flavian Rome
Author(s):

Daniel R. Schwartz (Contributor Webpage)

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199262120.003.0004

Focusing on the political relationship between Judaea and Rome, this chapter examines why Agrippa II, a staunch ally of Vespasian and Titus during the Great Revolt, was never rewarded with the kingship of Judea. The answer to this question, according to Schwartz, lies in the Flavian portrayal of Judaea as a conquered territory. This was illustrated by Vespasian’s coinage featuring the legend Iudaea capta. This chapter argues that ‘Judaea’ ceased to be an official designation and its territory started to be referred to as ‘Idumaea’ or ‘Palaestina’. It then weighs in on the debate over translating Iudaeus as ‘Judean’ or as ‘Jew’. In his view, while Graeco-Roman usage originally designated an ethnicity connected with a geographical region (as in ‘Judean’), the word took on a broader meaning (‘Jew’) when the Judean Diaspora started to grow; Judaean religious attributes became the most distinctive marker of their cultural uniqueness.

Keywords:   kingship, Agrippa II, ethnicity, religion, Ioudaios/Iudaeus, Palaestina, Jews, Judaea, Diaspora

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