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Principles in Health Economics and Policy$

Jan Abel Olsen

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199237814

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199237814.001.0001

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(p.223) Index

(p.223) Index

Source:
Principles in Health Economics and Policy
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
actuarially fair insurance 113–15
adverse selection 114–15
agency relationship 52–5
allocative efficiency 157–8
altruism 62–7
asymmetric information 52–5
benefits forgone 35, 36, 71, 76
budget line 25–8, 32, 43, 46
burden of disease 183
capitation 139, 143–5
‘caring externality’ 52
compulsary public insurance 119–24
contagion 56–8
cost–benefit analysis (CBA) 170, 186, 201, 208
cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) 171, 208, 214
cost–utility analysis (CUA) 171
costs
average 196–8
marginal 196–8
production losses 200
technical optimum 197
cream skimming 57
cross-subsidy 58, 106, 114, 116
deductibles
insurance plans 129–31, 134
demand curve 39, 40, 41, 42, 57, 86–8, 112, 130, 141, 142
demand, elasticities of 40–2
determinants of health 83
diagnosis-related group (DRG) 156, 157, 200
diet 95, 96–7, 213
disability-adjusted life year (DALY) 182–4
discounting 201–4
distributive justice, theories of 67–72
doctor–patient relationship 52–4
economic evaluation 169–74, 187, 201–4, 213
efficiency
allocative 44
cost 25–6, 43
technical 25, 43
egalitarianism 69
EQ-5D descriptive instrument 4, 180
equality 78–9
equity 79
externalities 50–9, 61, 86–8
‘fair innings’ of age 211
fairness 80
fee for service 149–51
genetics 83, 213
health
descriptive systems 3–6, 14–15
dimensions of 5
health care
definition of 6, 15
health possibility frontier (HPF)
defined 37–8
social welfare function 75–7
theories of justice and 72–5
health gains
consequences beyond patients’ 214–15
generally 209–10
monetary value of 189–92
health-related lifestyle
interventions 101
substance use 95, 98–101
health-related quality of life (HRQL) 4, 178, 179
health span 5, 6, 95, 189
healthy life expectancy (HALE) 5
human capital 58, 207
incremental cost-effective ratio (ICER) 192, 193, 210
indifference curve 29–30, 31
individual preferences 92, 192, 214
inequalities, health care 15, 78, 79, 89, 90, 92
insurance
and voluntary insurance
internal markets 138, 163, 165–6
isocost see budget line
isoquant 24–6
justice 80–1
labour supply 122, 145–8
life expectancy 11–14, 91
marginal costs 39, 42, 51, 86, 87, 112, 131–2, 143, 165, 195–8
marginal productivity 21, 38, 73, 198
marginal utility 23, 30, 62, 68, 108, 202
maximin 70–2
(p.224) monetary benefits 175, 192
monopoly 47, 51
moral hazard 112–13, 127
national health service (NHS) 121–2, 151, 153
needs 9, 17, 53, 68, 70, 133, 142
non-welfarist 66, 209
opportunity costs 35–6, 38, 76, 77, 146, 165
Pareto
efficient 34, 38, 43–4
improvement 34
optimal 36
potential Pareto criterion 172
patient payment
co-payment 128–9, 134, 135
distributive implications 131–2
perfect competition 19, 186
perfect market model 47–52
physical environment
externalities 88
generally 85–9
pollution 85
polluter pay principle 86–7
prevention 6, 7, 8, 15
primary goods 69, 70–1, 78
priority setting 169–74, 210, 215
private insurance see voluntary insurance
private goods 48, 49, 50
production functions 19–22, 53
production gains 73, 170, 176, 185–8, 193, 199, 207
production losses 186, 199
production possibility frontier (PPF) 33, 34, 37, 43
productivity 21, 22, 24
provider remuneration
primary care
capitation see capitation
fee for service see fee for service
salary see salary
secondary care
hospital payment systems 154–9
public bad 85–6
public goods 49, 50, 55, 58, 65, 86, 188
quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) 6, 73, 176, 178–82, 192, 193, 216
quality of life 4, 172, 178–81
redistribution 62–4
income 90
regulation
direct 88, 99, 100
indirect 88
rehabilitation 6, 7, 8, 15, 164, 165, 200
revenue–expenditure–income identity 103, 106, 137, 166
risk behaviour 107–8, 116
risk pooling 107
salary
capitation compared 149–51
fee for service compared 149–51
generally 145–8
smoking 50, 96, 102
social environment
education and 89
health and 89, 90
income distribution 89–90
inequalities in health 89, 92
social hierarchy 90–1
social health insurance 120–4
social welfare function (SWF) 75–7, 209
split preferences 55
standard gamble 180–2
substance use 98–101
substitution 26–32
supply curve 39, 40, 42, 86, 141
supply, demand and 37–44
target income hypothesis 143, 148
taxed-financed insurance 121–4
technical efficiency 25, 43, 51, 156
time preference rate 201
trade offs
consumers and 30
health/wealth 31
income/leisure 147, 200
person 182
time 180
transaction costs 115, 116, 150, 165
transfer payments 185
transfers in cash 64–7
transfers in-kind 64–7
transformation curve see production possibility frontier
uncertainty 49, 52, 71, 107, 165, 174, 182, 202
utilitarianism 67–9, 77–8
utility functions 22–3
utility possibility frontier (UPF) 36, 37, 77
visual analogue scale 180–182
voluntary donations 58, 61, 103
voluntary insurance
actuarially fair insurance 113–15
adverse selection 114–16
compulsory public insurance compared 123
moral hazard 112–13
wealth
health and 9, 10, 30–1
welfarist 66, 209
willingness-to-pay (WTP) 190–2, 201, 207–8