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Nature Red in Tooth and Claw – Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Nature Red in Tooth and Claw: Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering

Michael Murray


The problem of evil remains a perennial challenge to theistic belief. However, one aspect of this challenge has been largely unexplored by theists — the problem of non-human animal pain and suffering. This problem has become even more vexing in the last century as theists have come to accept that non-human animals capable of pain and suffering have inhabited the earth for hundreds of millions of years, struggling to survive in the face of disease, deprivation, and predation. Evil of this sort might not be especially problematic if standard theodices offered by theists could be applied here as ... More

Keywords: evolution, animal pain, theodicy, evil, theism, animal consciousness

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2008 Print ISBN-13: 9780199237272
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2008 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199237272.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Michael Murray, author
Franklin and Marshall College, Pennsylvania
Author Webpage