The responses to items can take many forms, ranging from dichotomous (e.g., Yes/No) to continuous. This chapter presents many of the variants of continuous judgements, such as visual analogue scales, Likert scales, adjectival scales, Harter scales, and face scales. It discusses many of the issues that the test developer must address, such as the number of steps on a scale, whether there should be an odd or even number of alternatives, whether or not to label each point on a scale, and the meanings of various adjectives. It then presents comparative judgement methods (e.g., paired comparisons, Guttman scaling, Thurstone scaling), and econometric methods (time tradeoff, standard gamble).
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