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Sensorimotor Foundations of Higher
Cognition$

Patrick Haggard

Print publication date: 1993

Print ISBN-13: 9780199231447

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231447.001.0001

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(p.649) Subject Index

(p.649) Subject Index

Source:
Sensorimotor Foundations of Higher Cognition
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Please note that references to non-textual materials such as Figures will be in italic print.

ACC (anterior cingulate cortex) see anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
action chunks, simple and superordinate 501, 502, 503
action goals 398–400, 580–2
action hierarchies 439–41
action mirroring 435–6
action hierarchies 439–41
anticipatory nature 451–2, 453
bottom-up vs. top-down 441–2
function 450–3
further goals/intentions 444–5
and goal understanding see goal understanding
goal-directed actions, congruency in mirroring 443–4
level of 446–7
non-executable actions 445–6
visuo-motor translation during 436–42
action prediction, and goal understanding 452
action preparation 153
action reconstruction 437
action selection/action monitoring 122–3
action semantics 575, 576–80
action values 131–4, 136
action-reward associations 43
active intermodal mapping (AIM) 513–14
Actor Body Orientation 277, 282, 283
Actor Body Tilt 277, 283
Actor-Critic models 28, 43
adjacent frontolateral cortex 112
AIM (active intermodal mapping) 513–14
aIPS (anterior intraparietal sulcus) 384, 398, 399, 400, 581
Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) 256, 257
amygdala, basolateral 135, 136
analysis of variance see ANOVA (analysis of variance)
anarchic hand syndrome 361, 362
anatomo-functional hypothesis, prism adaptation 221–3
animacy 469–72
anosognosia, for hemiplegia 163–81
action generation feed-forward model, comparator system disturbance 168–70
clinical description of anosognosia 163–4
and conscious intention 170–1
denial behavior 165
feed-forward hypothesis 166–8, 169
as selective monitoring disorder 166
and somatoparaphrenia 362
as specific cognitive disorder 164–5
and tactile-proprioceptive disorders 168
vestibular stimulation, elimination by 165
ANOVA (analysis of variance)
attenuation 348
body ownership 365, 370
cognitive and motor control 107, 109
ideomotor movements 277, 283
motor control 391
motor system research 148
one-way 35, 200
repetition suppression approach (RS) 395
speech perception 424, 427
tactile extinction 193, 194, 199
three-way 199, 424
two-way 194, 348, 427
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) 34, 121–40
action selection/action monitoring 122–3
action values 131–4
costs and benefits in 122, 123, 131–4
effort and delay costs, choices made 134–6
error-related activity 31, 40, 41, 124–7, 126
feedback detection 41
lesions, impairing decision making 122, 124–30, 126
and noradrenergic system 29
OFC and ACC, complementary specializations 134–6
recordings in 33, 35
task matching 128–9
anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) 384, 398, 399, 400, 581
aphasia, and brain 410
associative sequence learning (ASL) 461, 463–6
conceptual knowledge, using 585
correspondence problem 465
extending model to other mirror phenomena 474–5
schematic representation 464
ataxia, optic see optic ataxia (OA)
‘ataxie optique’ 48, 49
attention
COVAT (covert orienting of visual attention task) 61–2
motor system, attentional tasks 141
premotor theory 153
reflexive and voluntary, deficit in optic ataxia 61–4
saccades/saccade planning 4–13, 19–23
visual, and parietal activity 3
attentional ataxia, associated deficits 61–4
attenuation
gating or cancellation mechanism 349–52, 355
self-generated taps, perception 344
spatial and magnitude influences on 345–9
and temporally tuned predictive mechanism 344–5
(p.650) attribution problem, self/other differential 243–5
audience design 604
auditory rhythm sequences 144
autism 287
autobiographical memory, theory of mind 630–2
BA 6 412, 429
BA 44 412, 502, 503
BA 45 502, 503
Bálint syndrome 47–9, 66
‘ataxie optique’ distinguished 48
Bálint-Holmes syndrome 47, 50
Bayes’ rule 536, 543, 544
Bayesian information criterion (BIC) 256, 257
behavioral data analysis, cognitive and motor control 107
Behavioral Inattention Test 222
belief learning 261, 262
BIC (Bayesian information criterion) 256, 257
bilateral parietal damage 48
blind people, studies using 92–4
body ownership
agency sense, and body ownership sense 360–2
body in brain 362–3
defined 359
feeling of 372–7
multisensory integration, body representations 367–9, 373
neural source of a reference model 370–2
rubber hand illusion (RHI) see rubber hand illusion (RHI)
sensorimotor basis 359–62
BOLD (blood oxygenation level-dependent signal) 146, 152, 154, 387, 391, 625
Bonferroni correction 391
‘bottom-up’approach 210–11
prism adaptation as 211–23
brain
and aphasia 410
body in 362–3
grasp representations in 394
human mirror neuron system, brain imaging 415–18
motor hierarchy in 383–6
normal see normal brain
brain imaging 31, 142
branching control 494
Break Fixation error 37
Broca’s area
cognitive control 503, 504, 505
monkey homologue 412–15
and motor control 156
pars opercularis 412, 423, 430
pars triangularis 415
speech perception 410, 411, 420–8, 429
temporary inactivation 426
Brodmann areas 209
cascade model, cognitive control 491–3, 501
cerebellar lesions, prism adaptation 222
cerebral activity, communication 608–12
cerebral convergence, symbolic and nonsymbolic information 555–6
cerebral networks
‘baseline’ 295
nonspecific 297–8
‘other’ 294–5
‘reasoning’ 295–7
‘self’ 293–4
Choice and No-choice tasks 32–3, 34, 42
choice reaction-time tasks 78
CMAr (rostral cingulate motor area) 33
cognitive and motor control
anticipatory preparation of response modality 113–14
behavioral data analysis 107
degree of motor-relatedness 104–5, 112–13
functional magnetic resonance imaging 107, 108–11, 115
integrated approach 115
parietal cortex 115
premotor cortex, and functional organization of motor control 103
relationship between motor control and cognitive control 102–3
response modality 107, 109, 111, 112
anticipatory preparation of 113–14
stimulus-response (S-R) rules 114–15
task rules 114–15
cognitive control
branching control 494
cascade model 491–3, 501
concepts 102
contextual vs episodic control 495–8
episodic vs branching control 498–500, 505
executive functions and prefrontal cortex 27
fractionating
action chunks, simple and superordinate 501, 502, 503
cascade model 491–3, 501
within hierarchical structures 500–4
within time domain 493–500
hierarchical vs. temporal 505
information-theoretic approach
basic model 487–91
cascade model 491–3, 501
conditional information 488
mutual information 488
levels 505
in LPFC, multiple views of 485–7
modulation of 28–30
motor-related see cognitive and motor control
neural basis, research 101
and performance monitoring see cognitive control and performance monitoring
polychronic dimension 493
and posterior frontolateral cortex 101–2, 103–4, 113
vs. sensory control 504
synchronic dimension 493
(p.651) cognitive control and performance monitoring
behavior 32–3, 37
modulation of 37–41
neurophysiology 32–41
potential interactions 39, 41
recordings
in ACC 33, 35
in dACC 38
in DLPFC 38–9
in OFC 35–7
cognitive neuroscience 575
communication
achieved when 603
behavioral performance 608
cerebral activity 608–12
Communicative and Noncommunicative trials 610
generation of communicative intentions 603–4, 605–6
mathematical theory 603
tacit communication game 606–8 see also language; speech
compatibility effect 471, 585, 587
compressive coding principle 531
compulsion to associate 329
computational modeling 28
conceptual knowledge, using 575–99
action goals 580–2
action semantics 576–80
associative sequence learning 585
ideomotor theory of action 584–5
perceptual symbols theory 584
semantics, action and language 587–92
sensory functional hypothesis vs. correlated structure principle 583–4
theories 582–7, 592–4
two-route model to action 521–3, 586, 593
conceptual mediation 475
conceptual theories 463
conflict monitoring 29, 30, 42–3
confrontation method, extinction 184, 195
congenitally blind people 92–4
conscious and unconscious processes 330–2
contrast sensitivity 5, 61
control animals, error response 125
control models, performance monitoring 28–30
control theories 319–38
clinical illustration 332–4
conscious and unconscious processes 330–2
Freudian ‘Project’model 321–5
primary processes 322–3, 328–30
reality indications 324–7, 335
secondary processes 327–8
sensorimotor 325–30
corollary discharge 340
correlated structure principle, vs. sensory functional hypothesis 583–4
cortical visual streams, dorsal and ventral 4
cortico-cortical afferents, premotor cortex 155, 156
costs and benefits, and ACC 122, 123, 131–4
COVAT (covert orienting of visual attention task) 61–2
covert attention deficits, ataxia 61–4
cytoarchitectonics 412
DA afferences/antagonists 31
dACC (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) see dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)
decision making
comparison of learning models 255–8
neuroimaging studies 123
problems 250
reinforcement learning model 252–4, 256, 257, 262
social 261–2
dementia, semantic 577–8
denial behavior, anosognosia 165
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) 67
direct matching 453, 454
bottom-up vs. top-down approach 441
hypothesis 436
level of mirroring and goal understanding 446
vs. reconstruction 437–8
dissociation paradigm 67, 332
distance effects, symbolic numerals 554
distractors, and saccade planning 7–8, 9, 18, 19, 20
DLPFC (dorsolateral lateral prefrontal cortex) see dorsolateral lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)
dopamine/dopaminergic neurons 30, 31
dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) 29, 31, 34, 36
and conflict monitoring 42–3
and DLPFC, interactions with 39, 40
feedback detection 41
recordings in 38
reward processing 32
values 42
dorsal pathway and secondary process 327–8
dorsolateral lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) 30, 36
dACC, interactions with 39, 40
decision making 260, 263
DLPFC-ACC interaction 31
recordings in 38–9
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 103
double dissociation, classical 521
double simultaneous stimulation (DSS) 184
double-cue trials 106–7
DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) 67
dual-route model, imitation 515–17
dyschiria 165
Edinburgh Handedness Inventory 107
effector independent pointing errors 54–6
efference copy 319, 340
model 325–7
electro-oculogram (EOG) 365
EMG (muscle electrical activity) 171, 177
emotional mirroring 474
empiricist theories, mirror phenomena 462
emulation, vs. imitation 438–9
emulative action reconstruction 436
(p.652) emulator neurons 454
encoding/decoding approaches 603–4
ERN (error-related negativity) 31
ERPs (evoked related potentials) 29, 31, 201, 555
error detection/error monitoring ability 31, 40, 41, 124–7, 126
error-related negativity (ERN) 31
event coding theory 462, 585, 593
evoked related potentials (ERPs) 29, 31, 201, 555
executive functions, and prefrontal cortex 27–8
extinction, tactile 183–206
behavioral approach 192–4
as competitive phenomenon 184
cross-modal 188, 189, 201
multisensory space 185–7
in normal brain 190–6
multisensory effects 196–201
plastic multisensory modulations, induced by tool-use 187–90
proprioceptive and kinesthetic inputs 196, 200, 202
TMS-induced 191
extrapersonal space 185
eye-hand coordination 49–50
EZ-diffusion model 547, 560, 562
F5 neurons 412–14, 415
false beliefs 626
feedback detection 41–2
feedback loops, motor control 383
feed-forward hypothesis, anosognosia 166–8, 169
FEF neurons 185
field and hand effects 51–7, 56
field effect 48, 49, 51, 66
finger movements 238
first-person perspective, rotated 241–3
Flock of Birds, Ascension Technology 422
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) see functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
force-matching task 343, 352–5
forward modeling 142
Freudian ‘Project’ model
inside and outside, distinction 321
organized memory structure, emergence 321–2
primary and secondary processes 320, 321–4
reality indications 324–5, 335
structure, interference with primary processes 322–3
frontal lobe lesions 135
functional imaging 73, 90, 221
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
brain imaging 415
cognitive and motor control 107, 108–11, 115
habitual pragmatic event 148–51
mathematical theory 534
motor hierarchy studies 385
prefrontal activity modulations 29
tacit communication game (TCG) 609
tactile extinction in normal brain 190
temporal order judgment reversals 79
theory of mind (ToM) 625, 631
functional proximity model 492
functional subsidiarity model 492
game theory 136, 250
gating mechanism, and attenuation 349–52, 355
Gaussian distribution 75
Gaussian functions 83
Gaussian random-walk model 545–7
Gaussian tuning curves 531, 532
gaze ataxia/apraxia 48
General Linear Model 108
GOADI (goal-directed theory of imitation) 472, 473
Goal and Grasp 395
goal object 395
goal understanding
and action mirroring 442–7
and action prediction 452
impossible actions 449–50
nonhuman agents 449
pretence actions 450
without simulation 447–50 see also action mirroring
goal-directed actions, congruency in mirroring 443–4
GO/NOGO discrimination performance (monkeys) 5–6, 12, 13, 14
habitual pragmatic event map 141, 142–3, 157–8
hallucinations 322
hand and foot blocks 109, 111
hand effect 48, 49, 51, 56–7, 66
hand grasp 391, 394–5, 400
hand/mouth action representation 409
Hebbian hypothesis 463, 464, 588
hemiplegia, anosognosia for see anosognosia, for hemiplegia
heterotopagnosia 245
hypometry, hand movement 55
hypothesis production 296–7
IB (imitation behavior) 512, 513
ideomotor apraxia 513
ideomotor movements 267–91
compensatory 267, 271
history 270
induction, perceptual/intentional 273
inverted view 273
orientation, role 273
study 271–88
method 274–5, 282
predictions 272–3
results 275–9, 282–4
ideomotor theory 268–9
action semantics 593
conceptual knowledge, using 584–5
goal representations 585
motor resonance, constraints 269–71
IFG (inferior frontal gyrus) 381,394, 396, 397, 400
IFJ (inferior frontal junction) 104
(p.653) imitation
‘direct’models 513–15
dual-route model 515–17
vs. emulation 438–9
healthy individuals, evidence from 516–17
as innate process (not only human) 511–12
meaningful and meaningless actions, longer presentation times 511, 518–19
neuropsychological evidence 520–1
as perpetual process 512–15
strategic control, testing in mixed conditions 517–20
theories of 437
inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) 381,394, 396, 397, 400
inferior frontal junction (IFJ) 104
inferior parietal lobule (IPL) 384
Information Theory 487
inhibition and hierarchy 329–30
innervation feeling 326
intention
action mirroring 444–5
anosognosia, for hemiplegia 170–1
communication, mathematical theory 603
concept 601
encoding/decoding approaches 603–4
experimental demonstration, in anosognosic patients 171–8
motor theory of speech perception 604
origin of intentions 612–13
saccadic 3
sensorimotor theories 327
internal random walk 544
inverse problems 447–8
inverted motion signals, temporal order judgment reversals 89–90
IPL (inferior parietal lobule) 384
joint probability (JP) 194
joystick reversal task 124, 128
JP (joint probability) 194
Kanji characters 144
kinematics 381, 383
Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test 353
Landolt ring 5, 6, 12
language 430, 587–8 see also speech
lateral intraparietal area (LIP) 3–25
dorsal and ventral cortical visual streams 4
neuronal activity/neurons 4, 8–9,10, 16, 18
objects in receptive field, information on 17–19
prenormalized data 6, 8
saccades see saccades
lateral occipital cortex (LOC) 381
lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) 29, 483–509
cognitive control see under cognitive control
contextual vs episodic control 495–8
episodic vs branching control, empirical findings 498–500
executive control 484
fractionating cognitive control within hierarchical structures 500–4
multiple views of cognitive control in 485–7
and prefrontal cortex 484
lateral premotor cortex, auditory responses 154
lateral pulvinar 3
laterality index 194, 200
lateralized readiness potential 170
law of effect (Thorndike) 250
lexical-semantic routes 516, 520
light-emitting diodes (LEDs) 52
LIP (lateral intraparietal area) see lateral intraparietal area (LIP)
LIPSIA software 107, 147
LLR (log-likelihood ratio) 543
‘location-stop’ response 60
locus coeruleus (LC) 29
log-Gaussian model 529–32, 534, 538
logistic regression analysis 128
log-likelihood ration (LLR) 543
LPFC (lateral prefrontal cortex) see lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC)
LUT (left upper trapetius) 175, 176
‘M’ judgment 168, 169, 170, 171
MacNemar’s test 36
magnetic misreaching 58
magnetoencephalography (MEG) 412
matching pennies game 249
behavioral task 251–2
prefrontal cortex, neural activity in 258–61
reinforcement learning model 252–4
mathematical theory of number representation/manipulation 527–74, 549, 558
calculations 561–7, 562
theory 563–5
experimental evidence 532–4, 565–7
neuronal modeling 530–2
numerical response times 543–51
numerosity representation 528–43, 549
open issues 534–5, 567
symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers 551–61
MDEFT (modified driven equilibrium Fourier transformation) 146, 147
mean response latencies 590
meaningful and meaningless actions 511, 518–19, 591–2
medial parietal cortex, hypothesis production 296–7
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) 627
MEG (magnetoencephalography) 412
mental number line, log-Gaussian model 529
mental tracking 62
MEP (movement-evoked potential) 178, 419, 420
mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons 30
micro-iontophoresis 31
microstimulation 412
middle intraparietal sulcus 381
(p.654) mirror ataxia 57
mirror neurons (MNs)
action mirroring 435, 437, 443, 444, 451
audio-visual 418
Broca’s area, monkey homologue 414
discovery of 579
Sender-Receiver theory 604 see also neuronal activity/neurons
mirror phenomena
associative sequence learning 463–6, 474–5
evidence 466–73
natural selection vs. learning 466–8
online mediation of mirror effects 462
sensorimotor vs. conceptual mechanisms 468–73
sources 466–8
theories 461–73
dimensions 462–3
mirror system 243–4, 623
deficits 287
MNS (frontoparietal mirror neuron system) 513
monkeys/monkey experiments
ACC lesions in 122, 124–30, 126
anterior intraparietal sulcus 384
Broca’s area 412–15
cognitive control and performance monitoring 32–41
effort and delay costs, choices made 134–6
electrophysiology 53–4
GO/NOGO discrimination performance 5–6, 12, 13, 14
grasping-related areas, neurons in 581
lateral intraparietal area see lateral intraparietal area (LIP)
log-Gaussian model 532
motor system research 154–7
peripersonal and extrapersonal space 185, 187
premotor cortex 464
monoaminergic afferences 27–8
Monte Carlo simulations 148
MOSAIC model 356, 383
motion projection hypothesis, temporal order judgments 79–80
motivation 270, 484
motor cognition, selfish side and interactive side 233, 238
motor commands, and parietal activity 3
motor control
and cognitive control see cognitive and motor control
feedback loops 383
functional organization 103
and premotor cortex 103
somatotopic organization of motor system 103
motor hierarchy 381, 381–407
action goals 398–400
background 382–3
in brain 383–6
goal object 395
hand grasp 391, 394–5, 400
kinematics 383
moving up 401–2
neural representation 391, 394–5
object weight 391
repetition suppression approach, applying to 388–9
task, effects 395–6
visual analysis of action 397–8
motor resonance, constraints 269–71
motor strategies 153
motor syntax deficits, and frontal aphasics 426–8
motor system/motor system research 103, 141
behavioral performance 148
BOLD (blood oxygenation level-dependent signal) 146, 152, 154
data acquisition 146–7
data analysis 147–8
fMRI data 148–51, 152
methods
participants 144
stimuli 144–5
tasks 145–6
monkey data, integrating findings with 154–7
premotor engagement in prediction 153–4
motor theory of social cognition 620
motor theory of speech perception 603, 604
motor words, selection 414
MPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) 627
multisensory integration, body representations 367–9, 373
multisensory space 185–7
musicians, study of 467
nativist theories, mirror phenomena 462
natural selection vs. learning 466–8
neglect
and extinction 184
representational 217–18
sensory, and tactile/auditory extinction 216–21
as spatial cognition disorder 207–11, 209
spatial deficit 208
unilateral 207, 208–10
network activity, during adaptation 43–4
neural activity, prefrontal cortex 258–61
neural representation 391, 394–5
neural Weber fraction 531
neurobiological and neuroimaging evidence 550–1
neuroimaging studies 136, 186, 304–5, 385, 398
(p.655) neuronal activity/neurons
DLPF neurons 31
dopaminergic neurons 30
dorsal anterior cingulate cortex 38
emulator neurons 454
F5 neurons 412–14, 415
FEF neurons 185
Freudian ‘Project’ model 324–5
grasping-related areas, monkeys 581
lateral intraparietal area 4, 8–9, 10, 16, 18
lateral prefrontal cortex 260, 261, 263
locus coeruleus 29
mirror neurons (MNs) see mirror neurons (MNs)
numerosity detector neurons 531
orbito frontal cortex 31–2, 37
reward expectation 135
single neuron studies 412, 567
neuronal modeling 530–2, 548, 550
neurophysiology 32–41, 44, 258
neuropsychological evidence, imitation 520–1
Newman-Keuls post hoc comparisons 424
nonconscious mimicry 269–70, 287
noradrenergic system 29
normal brain
multisensory effects 196–201
and pathology 183–7
tactile extinction 190–6
multisensory effects 196–201
Norman-Shallice theory 29
numbers, symbolic and nonsymbolic 551–61
acquisition of symbolic numerals 556
cerebral convergence 555–6
distance effects, symbolic numerals 554
experimental evidence 554–61
log-to-linear shift, during development 556–7
stages of processing symbolic numerals 555
symbolic comparison task, refined analyses 557–61, 558
theory 551–4
numerals, meaning 528
numerical response times 543–51
discrimination task 544
experimental evidence 548
Gaussian random-walk model 545–6
identification 546–7
neurobiological and neuroimaging evidence 550–1
neuronal modeling 548, 550
number comparison 548
theory 543–5
Wagenmaker’s EZ-diffusion model 547, 560, 562
numerosity comparison 537–43
numerosity detector neurons 531
numerosity discrimination 537
numerosity labeling 540–3
numerosity representation 528–43, 549
comparison 537–43
discrimination 537
experimental examples 537
labeling 540–3
log-Gaussian model 529–30, 532, 534, 538
meaning of‘numerosity’ 528
same-different judgments 539–40
theory 536
Nyquist Shannon theorem 147
OA (optic ataxia) see optic ataxia (OA)
object semantics 581
object weight, neural representation 391
object-centred action 328–9
observer, perspective of 241–3
oculomotor systems 3, 4, 15
OFC (orbitofrontal cortex) see orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
optic ataxia (OA) 47–71, 50
apparent motion, deficit in detection and anticipation 59–61
attentional/perceptual ataxia 59–64
bilateral 56
covert attention, deficit in 64
field and hand effects, nature 51–8
history 47–51
perception, attention and action, relationship between 64–8
unilateral 51–2, 56, 57
deficit in reflexive and voluntary covert attention 61–4
visuo-motor vs. visuo-spatial interpretations 49–51
visuo-perceptual deficits 60
Where and How components, dissociable? 57–8
optimal response curves, numerosity representation 536
‘Optische Ataxia’ (OA) 47–9
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) 29, 34
and ACC, complementary specializations 134–6
neuronal activity/neurons 31–2, 37
recordings in 35–7
values 42
order-judgment probability 82, 86, 89
organ identification, imitation 514
outcoming monitoring, neuroimaging studies 123
PA (prism adaptation) see prism adaptation (PA)
parietal cortex 3, 115, 329–30
parieto-occupital junction (POJ) 58, 61
pars opercular is 412, 423, 430
pars triangularis 415
pen-and-cups task 473
perception-action-links 268, 271, 287
perceptual deficits, in optic ataxia see optic ataxia (OA)
perceptual prediction 142, 143, 153–4 see also motor system research
perceptual symbols theory 584
(p.656) performance monitoring and cognitive control see cognitive control and performance monitoring control models 28–30
peripersonal space 185, 189
peripheral vision, impaired letter identification 55
peri-saccadic periods 74
peri-Sylvian cortex 156
perspective taking 270
PET (positron emission tomography) 374, 415, 470
Philips Intera scanner 390
phonological discrimination, and TMS 421–2
piano playing 467
plastic multisensory modulations, induced by tool-use 187–90
POJ (parieto-occupital junction) 58, 61
population vector 532
position emission tomography (PET) 374, 415, 470
post hoc tests 13, 175, 348, 610
posterior frontolateral cortex, cognitive control 101–2, 103–4, 113
posterior parietal cortex (PPC)
and body-in-space operations 244
dorsal area lesions see optic ataxia (OA)
lesions 244–5
visuo-motor programming/visuo-spatial processing 50
posterior part of superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) 610, 611, 613
PPC (posterior parietal cortex) see posterior parietal cortex (PPC)
prediction errors 28, 30
predictive action monitoring 436
prefrontal activity modulations 27–46
Actor-Critic models 28, 43
conflict 42–3
executive functions and prefrontal cortex 27–8
feedback detection 41–2
network activity, during adaptation 43–4
prefrontal cortex
cognitive dimension 484
development in humans 483
emotional dimension 484
and executive functions 27–8
motivational dimension 484
neural activity 258–61
social decision making, role in 262–3
‘premise integration phase’, deductive reasoning process 296
premotor cortex
cortico-cortical afferents 155, 156
habitual pragmatic event map 142
monkeys/monkey experiments 464
and motor control organization 103
nonmotor and nonlanguage functions 412
somatotopy, in lateral cortex 143
premotor theory of attention 153
presupplementary motor area (preSMA) 171
primary processes (control theories)
Freudian ‘Project’ model 320, 321–4
interference with, structure 322–3
and secondary processes 320, 321–4
sensorimotor theories 328–30
ventral pathway and primary process 328–30
prism adaptation (PA) 207
adaptive spatial realignment 213
as bottom-up approach 211–23
effects 215–16
forms of learning 213
post-test procedure 212
pretest procedure 212
shift of proprioception in healthy subjects following 211
strategic perceptual-motor control 213
visual neglect symptoms improving following 213
visual shift, exposure to 212
visuo-verbal tasks 216
Problem-solving (PS) task 37, 40, 41
property-and-modality hypothesis 143–4, 154
proprioception
disorders 168
pointing 58
and prism adaptation 211
proprioceptive drifts 365, 368
types of system 300
PRP (psychological refractory period) 555
PS (Problem-solving) task 37, 40, 41
pSTS (posterior part of superior temporal sulcus) 610, 611, 613
psychic paralysis of gaze (simultanagnosia) 47, 59, 67
psychoanalytical control theories see Freudian ‘Project’ model
psychological refractory period (PRP) 555
rapport, and nonconscious mimicry 270
rat experiments 131–2
ratio-dependent performance, numerosity discrimination 537
rCBF (regional cerebral blood flow) 222
reach-and-grasp actions 243
reaction latencies 78–9
reaction-time data (RT) 107
reality indications 324–7
reasoning network, self-specificity 301
recipient design 604
reconstruction, vs. direct matching 437–8
regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) 222
regression analysis 128, 258
reinforcement learning model 252–4, 256, 257, 262
repetition suppression (RS) 385, 386–8, 392–3
action goals 398–400
applying to motor hierarchy 388–9
LOC and IFG, effect on hand grasp 396, 397, 398
mathematical theory 533
methods 389–91
(p.657) numerosity representation 533
results 391–6
visual analysis of action 397–8 see also motor hierarchy
representational neglect, prism adaptation 217–18
resonance phenomena 142
response grid, numerosity labeling 541
response latencies 580
response modality 107, 109, 111, 112, 113–14
response time (RT) 61–2, 194
reward processing 32
RF (receptive fields) 185
right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ) 370, 371, 372, 627, 628, 631
right-brain damage (RBD) 164, 171–2, 176, 178
and extinction 186
left cross-modal extinction 188
neglect, unilateral 208
prism adaptation 214
spatial dysgraphia 219
unilateral spatial neglect following 184
rock-paper-scissors game 249
behavioral task 254–5
choice behavior, monkeys 254–8
comparison of learning models 255–8, 257
social decision making and learning 261
rostral cingulate motor area (CMAr) 33
RS (repetition suppression approach) see repetition suppression (RS)
RT (reaction-time data) 107
RT (response time) 61–2, 194
RTPJ (right temporoparietal junction) 370, 371, 372, 628, 631
rubber hand illusion (RHI) 359, 363–9, 372–4, 377 see also body ownership
RUT (right upper trapetius) 175, 176
saccades
and attention 4–13
curved somatosensory 91
delay-periods 9, 11–12, 13
distractors, and saccade planning 7–8, 9, 18, 19
goal and latency of saccades 4, 13–17
GO/NOGO discrimination performance (monkeys) 5–6, 12, 13,14
memory-guided 4, 13
and parieto-occupital junction 58
peri-saccadic periods 74
planning 3, 4–5, 7
postsaccadic delays, trials with 86
presaccadic delays, trials with 86
saccaradic intention 3
‘serial-saccade’ behavior 54, 55
subjective temporal order of tactile stimuli, reversing 86–9
temporal order reversal due to 84–9
salience maps 3, 4, 21, 22
satisfaction, experience of 321
scalar variability 529, 532, 564
schizophrenia 332–4, 342–3
SCRs (skin conductance responses) 366
secondary processes (control theories)
dorsal pathway and secondary process 327–8
Freudian ‘Project’ model 320, 321–4
and primary processes 320, 321–4
sensorimotor theories 327–8
selection-for-action principle 575, 595
self
and body see body ownership
neuro imaging of 293–317
other, relationship with 269–71, 287
as psychological concept 234
self-identification 234–8
self/other differentiation 233–48
attribution problem 243–5
finger movements 238
grasping object and degrees of freedom problem 239–41
observer, perspective of 241–3
same action seen from different perspectives 238–41
self-identification, and primacy of self-generated action 234–8
third-person perspective, as rotated first-person perspective 241–3
self-specificity 298–305
content 299–301
defined 298
neuroimaging results 304–5
perspective 301–2
processes 302–3
self-specifying process, at sensorimotor level 303–4
semantics 588–91, 591–2
Sender-Receiver theory see communication; intention
sensorimotor theories 463
body ownership 359–62
intentional action 327
reality indications and efference copy model 325–7
secondary process and dorsal pathway 327–8
spatial localization 327–8
sensorimotor vs. conceptual mechanisms 468–73
sensory control, vs. cognitive control 504
sensory functional hypothesis 583–4
sensory neglect
and extinction (tactile/auditory) 216–21
negative effects 219–20
representational neglect 217–18
visuo-constructive disorders 218–19
sensory stimulus modality 143
‘serial-saccade’ behavior 54, 55
side-cathexes 323
SII (secondary somatosensory cortex) 191
simulation theory 605, 611
(p.658) simultanagnosia (psychic paralysis of gaze) 47, 59, 67
single stimulation (SS) 184
skin conductance responses (SCRs) 366
SMA (supplementary motor area) 170, 602
SOAs (stimulus onset asynchronies) see stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs)
social cognition, motor theory of 620
social decision making 261–3
social interactions in primates, neural basis 249–65
choice behavior 251–8
decision making
comparison of learning models 255–8
reinforcement learning model 252–4, 256, 257, 262
matching pennies game 249
behavioral task 251–2
prefrontal cortex, neural activity 258–61
reinforcement learning model 252–4
prefrontal cortex, role in social decision making 262–3
rock-paper-scissors game 249
behavioral task 254–5
comparison of learning models 255–8, 257
social decision making and learning 261
social decision making and learning 261–2
somatoparaphrenia 362, 377
somatosensory cortex 300, 362, 474
somatotopic organization, motor system 103
somatotopy, in lateral premotor cortex 143
space representation taxonomy 185
spatial dysgraphia 219
spatial localization 327–8, 331
spatial selectivity 38–9
speech 409–34
Broca’s area 412–15, 420–8
hand actions, and ‘speech actions’ 418–20
human mirror neuron system, brain imaging 415–18
monkey homologue of human Broca’s area 412–15
motor syntax deficits, and frontal aphasics 426–8
motor theory of speech perception 604
TMS 421–6, 423 see also language
spikes, genesis of 3, 4, 10, 14, 22
S-R (stimulus response) rules 114–15
SS (single stimulation) 184
stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs)
LIP activity, and saccades 6, 7, 8, 9
optic ataxia 63
symbolic numerals, processing 555
temporal order judgment reversals 79, 83, 88
stimulus-reinforcement association relearning 31
stimulus-response (S-R) rules 114–15, 512
stimulus-response associations 593, 594
stimulus-response compatibility 78
Stroop test 29, 30, 104
STS (superior temporal sulcus) 385, 398, 437
sublexical routes 515–16, 520
substantia nigra, basal ganglia 399
superior colliculus 3, 22
superior temporal sulcus (STS) 385, 398, 437
supplementary motor area (SMA) 170, 602
symbol grounding problem 551
symbolic numerals 554, 555, 556
tacit communication game (TCG) 606–8
tactile extinction see extinction, tactile
Talairach coordinates 110
Talairach sterotactic space 147
target eccentricity, optic ataxia 66
target-eye error, optic ataxia 58
target-jump paradigms, optic ataxia 58
task-switching paradigm 105, 114
TCG (tacit communication game) 606–8
teleological reasoning 448, 450
tempero-parietal junction, hypothesis production 296–7
temporal order judgment reversals
backward referral with slowing neural clock 90–2, 93
blind people, studies 92–4
crossings of arms/hands 74–9, 76, 77, 89–90, 91
incongruent presentation of visual stimuli 81
inverted motion signals 89–90
motion projection hypothesis 79–80
motion signals, evidence of contribution 80–4
perisaccadic periods 74, 89, 90
saccades, due to 84–9
subjective temporal order of tactile stimuli, reversing 86–9
visual apparent motion 80–4
temporal pole, hypothesis production 296–7
theory of mind (ToM) 611, 619, 620
and autobiographical memory 630–2
fMRI studies 625, 631
for others 621–8
representational 623
and resonance phenomena 286
for self 628–30
theory theory, intention 605
third-person perspective 241–3
T-maze 131–2, 134
TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation) see transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
ToM (theory of mind) see theory of mind (ToM)
‘top down’ approach, neglect rehabilitation 210
touch perception
attenuation see attenuation
force-matching tasks, meta-analysis of results from 352–5
schizophrenia, sensory prediction deficits in 342–3
self and externally generated sensation, discrimination 339–41
sensory cancellation of tactile sensation 341–2
(p.659) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) 348
action goals 399
body ownership 370–1
Broca’s area 409, 419, 420, 424
motor-sensory extinction 191
phonological discrimination 421–2
phonological priming effect 422–6, 423
rTMS 421, 422
two-route model to action, conceptual knowledge 586, 593
cerebral correlates 521–3
ventral pathway and primary process 328–30
ventral premotor cortex 373, 581
ventriloquism effect 83
visual apparent motion, and tactile temporal order judgments 80–4
visual attention, and parietal activity 3
visual orientation syndrome 47–8
visual periphery, perception deficits 64
visual search conditions 13–19
visu-manual adaptation 207–29
anatomo-functional hypothesis 221–3
‘bottom-up’approach 210–11
neglect
representational 217–18
sensory, and extinction 216–21
as spatial cognition disorder 207–11
unilateral 207, 208–10
prism adaptation see PA (prism adaptation)
rehabilitation approaches 210
‘top down’approach 210
visuo-constructive disorders 218–19
visuo-constructive disorders 218–19
visuo-motor transformations 102–3
visuo-motor translation (action mirroring) 436–42
direct matching vs. reconstruction 437–8
imitation vs. emulation 438–9
visuo-motor vs. visuo-spatial interpretations 49–51
visuo-tactile stimulation, synchronous 373
visuo-verbal tasks, prism adaptation 216
‘W’ judgment 170, 171, 602
Wagenmaker’s EZ-diffusion model 547, 560, 562
Weber’s law 529, 535, 537, 553, 556, 559
Wilcoxon sign rank 16, 17
win-stay-lose-switch (WSLS) strategy 252, 253, 254
working-memory hypothesis 486