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Crystal Structure AnalysisPrinciples and Practice$
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William Clegg, Alexander J Blake, Jacqueline M Cole, John S O Evans, Peter Main, Simon Parsons, and David J Watkin

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199219469

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.001.0001

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X-ray and neutron sources

X-ray and neutron sources

(p.333) 22 X-ray and neutron sources
Crystal Structure Analysis

William Clegg

Oxford University Press

Crystal structure determination by diffraction uses X-rays or neutrons. X-rays are readily available in laboratories from a standard X-ray tube, in which electron kinetic energy is converted to X-rays by interaction with core electrons of a metal target, giving particular characteristic wavelengths (and much wasted heat). Enhancements of the basic X-ray tube include rotating anodes and microfocus tubes, and the extracted X-rays can be concentrated somewhat by modern optics methods. Far higher X-ray intensities, together with other special properties, are obtained from synchrotron storage rings, which are large-scale national and international facilities; some of the properties are described, and an account given of applications. Neutrons are available from nuclear reactors and spallation sources, in monochromatic or pulsed polychromatic modes. Some advantages and disadvantages of neutrons, compared with X-rays, are described, resulting from their different interaction with samples.

Keywords:   X-rays, X-ray tubes, rotating anode, microfocus tubes, synchrotron, storage ring, neutrons, wavelength

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