There were over 1,000 route miles of jointly-owned track on the British railways system, and several joint stations too. Joint ownership did not imply co-operation, however. Joint lines often marked the boundaries between the territories of hostile companies, or represented a truce in which an invader got so far, but no further, in entering a rival's territory. Co-operation, when it did occur, was usually focused on joining Iforces to reduce the cost of an invasion of the territory of a common rival. The main exceptions were joint lines used for freight distribution in major urban areas, or far access to mines and coalfields; joint lines in coalfields were a relatively late development, however.
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