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Introduction to Scanning Tunneling MicroscopySecond Edition$
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C. Julian Chen

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780199211500

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211500.001.0001

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Atomic-Scale Imaging

Atomic-Scale Imaging

Chapter:
(p.169) Chapter 7 Atomic-Scale Imaging
Source:
Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Author(s):

C. Julian Chen

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211500.003.0007

This chapter discusses the imaging mechanism of STM and AFM at the atomic scale. Experimental facts show that at atomic resolution, tip electronic states play a key role. Analytic theoretical treatments provide quantitative explanation of the effect of the tip electronic states. On transition-metal tips, first-principle studies unanimously show that d-type tip electronic states dominate the Fermi-level DOS. First-principle studies of the combined tip-sample systems show that for both STM and AFM, the p- and d-type tip electronic states are the keys to understanding the atomic-scale images. The case of spin-polarized STM and the chemical identification of surface atoms are also discussed in terms of tip electronic structure. The chapter concludes with discussions of experimental verifications of the reciprocity principle: at atomic resolution, the role of tip electronic states and the sample electronic states are interchangeable.

Keywords:   imaging mechanism, atomic resolution, tip electronic states, corrugation amplitude, corrugation reversal, spin-polarized STM, chemical identification, reciprocity principle

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