This chapter presents the derivation of dynamical equations governing the motion of a perfect fluid, known as the Euler equations, both in the special and general relativistic cases. It considers some simple equations of state. It also discusses the hyperbolicity properties of the hydrodynamic system of evolution equations, the concept of weak solutions and shock waves, and how to generalize the Euler equations to the case of imperfect fluids with heat conduction and viscosity.
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