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Crime, Police, and Penal PolicyEuropean Experiences 1750-1940$
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Clive Emsley

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780199202850

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199202850.001.0001

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Protection, Punishment, and Reformation

Protection, Punishment, and Reformation

(p.160) 9 Protection, Punishment, and Reformation
Crime, Police, and Penal Policy

Clive Emsley (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

This chapter begins by outlining a typology of the police institutions that developed across 19th-century Europe: state civilian (e.g., the Metropolitan Police); state military (e.g., gendarmeries); and municipal. It stresses, however, that for many, especially in rural areas, turning to the police was still not the automatic response for the victims of many offences: infrajudicial practices and appeals to sorcery continued. At the same time, there were activities, such as poaching, defined by the state as crimes, but not seen as such by local communities. From developments in policing, the chapter switches to an investigation of the changing ideas of punishment and the international exchange of ideas about prison regimes. The discussion picks up on the debates over the separate and silent systems of prison discipline, and on the creation of institutions for juveniles.

Keywords:   crime, gendarmerie, infrajudicial practice, Metropolitan Police, poaching, police, prison, sorcery

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