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Democracy and the State in the New Southern Europe$
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Richard Gunther, P. Nikiforos Diamandouros, and Dimitri A. Sotiropoulos

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780199202812

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199202812.001.0001

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Social Policy, Democracy, and Citizenship in Southern Europe

Social Policy, Democracy, and Citizenship in Southern Europe

(p.87) 3 Social Policy, Democracy, and Citizenship in Southern Europe
Democracy and the State in the New Southern Europe

Marisol García

Neovi Karakatsanis

Oxford University Press

Despite aggregate-level increases in social welfare spending over the three decades following democratization, Southern European countries still do not provide universal coverage for citizens. Southern European welfare regimes remain fragmented, corporatist, and familistic, excluding from coverage of those who cannot secure permanent employment in the formal sector of the economy, especially women and young people who are hired under short-term contracts. The absence of universalistic “social citizenship” is a product of corporatist authoritarianism and repression of workers' demands under the previous political regimes, labor-market rigidities, clientelism, and the protection of the privileged status of long-term workers by trade unions. In response to this fragmented and incomplete welfare system, informal, family-based strategies of welfare provision have developed and become widespread in all four countries, with unpaid work in family businesses and an extraordinarily late average age for leaving the parents' home as distinguishing characteristics.

Keywords:   social citizenship, labor market segmentation, familism, corporatism, entitlement fragmentation, clientelism

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