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Andrew M. Steane

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198788560

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788560.001.0001

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Fluctuations

Fluctuations

Chapter:
(p.382) 27 Fluctuations
Source:
Thermodynamics
Author(s):

Andrew M. Steane

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788560.003.0027

Thermal fluctuations are discussed using thermodynamic tools and concepts. It is cautioned that fluctuations and out-of-equilibrium properties are not in general functions of state. The equation relating the probability of a given state to its entropy is quoted, and used to find expressions for the variance of various quantities, such as energy, volume, number, and temperature under various constraints. General observations are made, such as the relation between fluctuation and response function, the importance of fluctuations near critical points, and the relation to the fluctuation–dissipation theorem. Entropy changes associated with internal flows are calculated, and fluctuation as a function of time is considered. The shape of the autocorrelation function is carefully described. Johnson noise is calculated by a simple argument.

Keywords:   Fluctuation–dissipation theorem, fluctuation, response function, autocorrelation function, Johnson noise

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