In this chapter, on the higher level, the exposition of Bolzano’s theory takes into account that qualities are also objects and so in turn bearers of qualities. Moreover, the question is discussed whether or not Bolzano admitted empty qualities, and the Bolzanian complex theory of ‘tropes’ is illustrated. Besides this, an attempt is made to clarify the exact meaning of the Bolzanian insight into the strict parallelism between reference of an idea and truth of a proposition.
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