This chapter outlines the Bolzanian logical universe, introducing the basic notions the theory of which will be developed in subsequent chapters. This universe is made up of objects among which the basic relation may occur of having or, conversely, belonging (an object may have another object that then, in turn, belongs to it). An object that belongs to another object is a quality (of it); all others are pure objects. Among the objects, there is a basic distinction according to which some exist or have reality whereas the others simply are there; besides God, the only existing objects are those possessing spatio-temporal determinations. Among the non-existing objects, there are the lectological ones partitioned into ideas in themselves and propositions in themselves (here simply called ‘ideas’ and ‘propositions’), which constitute the objective counterpart of the subjective dimension of the thinking activity.
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