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Manufacturing TransformationComparative Studies of Industrial Development in Africa and Emerging Asia$

Carol Newman, John Page, John Rand, Abebe Shimeles, Måns Söderbom, and Finn Tarp

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198776987

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198776987.001.0001

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(p.277) Index

(p.277) Index

Source:
Manufacturing Transformation
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Note: As each chapter (except the first and last) pertains to a particular country, the sub-headings for each country have not been double-entered as main entries, so the reader is advised to locate main entries of interest under the country headings.

ADELCHI45
African Development Bank1
agricultural sector, and structural transformation5
agro-industries88
agglomeration269
export push267–8
infrastructure263
new opportunities261–2
aid donors204, 258, 268
Akosombo Textile Limited (ATL)63
Amin, Idi191, 193, 206
Angola93–4
Angolan Liberation Popular Movement (MPLA)93–4
ANNABELA45
ARA45
Associação Industrial de Moçambique (AIMO)107, 108
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)218, 219, 226, 250
balance of payments, and structural adjustment loans9
Bangladesh226, 251
Bank of Mozambique109
Barcelona Declaration184
Bata157
Benin150
Botswana80, 152
Brazil80, 163
Bretton Woods institutions139 see also International Monetary Fund; World Bank
British American Tobacco157
British East Africa Company156
Brookings Institution1
Brown Shoe Company45
Burkina Faso150
Cambodia213–31, 273
agricultural sector13–14, 214–17, 221
agro-industries225, 231
apparel/garments sector219, 221–2, 224–7, 231, 260
ASEAN218, 219, 226
Cambodia Tourism Marketing Strategy228
civil war215
closed economy216–17
competition/competitiveness218, 228
construction sector219, 222, 229, 231
consumer goods216
context3
corruption231
Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC)226–7
current account225
electrical and electronics sector229
employment213, 221–2, 226, 228, 231
entrepreneurship14, 216
and the EU227, 229
Everything but Arms (EBA) scheme229
evolution of industry214–18
exchange rates225, 231
FDI15, 19, 214, 218, 225, 227, 231, 271
financial/banking sector215, 229
fisheries sector228
Five-year Plans214, 215
food and beverage sector219, 221–2, 223, 224, 231
food relief217
foreign exchange225
forestry sector228
gas sector231
Government–Private Sector Forum (G–PSF)226
handicraft sector217, 224
human capital216
imports218
import substitution215, 224
industrial agglomeration18, 222–4, 269
Industrial Development Policy224–5, 231
industrial policy224–8
industrialization13, 257–8
industrial relations226
(p.278) inflation215, 217, 225, 231
infrastructure214–15, 223, 228, 231
institutions225, 226–7
investment climate224, 225
joint ventures214
Khmer Rouge13, 215, 216, 222
liberalization of trade/economy218
licensing218
machinery sector229
macroeconomic policy15, 218, 225
maize sector215
marketing228
mining sector231
National Bank of Cambodia (NBC)225
National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP)225
oil sector231
Open Sky Policy228
ownership types214, 218, 220
People’s Republic of Kampuchea (PRK)13, 216
privatization14, 217
productivity231
quotas226
regulations226–7
rice sector214, 215, 223, 229, 231
rubber sector214, 215, 229–31
sectoral composition218–19
service sector221
Sihanouk regime214–15
size of firms219–20
special economic zones18
standards231
state ownership14, 214, 216, 217, 218
structural reform and the export push14–15, 20, 218, 266
structure of industry4, 218–24
sunset and sunrise industries228–31
tariffs215
tasks, trade in260
taxation218
technology224
textile sector219, 221–2, 224, 226, 251
tobacco sector219, 221–2, 223, 224, 231
tourism227–8, 231
Tourism Strategic Development Plan228
trade policy218, 225–6
Two-year Plan214
unions227
utilities sector216
value added in manufacturing8
wage levels226
wood sector229
World Bank218, 219, 226, 227
Canada227
China
Africa’s infrastructure263
and Cambodia215, 215n, 220, 228
competition with OECD countries258
domestic demand259
FDI to Africa259
infrastructure259
international economic policy259
productivity164, 260
rising costs259
special economic zones in Africa271
steel sector250
textile sector85
trade logistics267–8
transport259
and Tunisia185
value added by manufacturing1, 80
and Vietnam236, 242
wage levels185, 258, 259
Coca-Cola101, 157
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)76, 204
communications
costs226
competition/competitiveness10, 16
between Africa and Asia258–60
human capital264
and productivity86–7
trade logistics267–8
corruption267
Côte d’Ivoire150
customs
export push266, 267, 268
industrial agglomeration270
Czech Republic215n
Democratic Republic of Congo195
Development Bank of Ethiopia46
East African Breweries157
East African Community (EAC)195, 204
collapse73, 163
regional exports268
revival76
Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)193
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)128, 131
education see human capital
Egypt80, 175, 188
Electricidade de Moçambique (EDM)108
employment, and productivity86
Engineering Capacity Building44
entrepreneurship10
Eskom108
(p.279) Ethiopia27–48
Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI)42, 46
agricultural sector27, 29, 31, 33
agro-industries37, 42, 47
apparel/garments sector36–7, 41, 43, 47
benchmarking44
cement sector28
Central Statistics Agency (CSA)32
challenges46–8
chemical sector33, 37, 47, 83
civil service47
competition/competitiveness30, 42, 43–4, 47, 48
construction sector32, 42, 47
context2
cottage/handicraft sector32
current industrial policy framework42–3
current structure of manufacturing sector31–40
customs47
Dergue regime7, 29–30
economic performance31
Engineering Capacity Building Program (ECBP)43
engineering sector33, 37, 47
Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF)30
entrepreneurship45, 46, 47
Ethiopian Leather and Leather Products Technology Institute (ELLPTI)44
Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) regime30–1, 42, 46
evolution of industry28–31
exports36–8, 42–3, 45, 47, 266
fabricated metals sector41
FDI19, 36, 272
five-year development plans28, 31, 42, 43, 45, 46
flower sector42, 43, 45–6, 47
food and beverage sector28, 32n, 33, 36, 41
foreign exchange43, 45
furniture sector33, 41
GDP, share of manufacturing in5
grain mills sector33
Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP)42
human capital43, 44, 45
IMF30
Imperial regime28
imports37, 38
import substitution28, 29, 42, 47
industrial agglomeration37–40
Industrial Development Strategy (IDS)31, 42, 46
industrialization7
industrial policy in practice43–6
infrastructure47
innovation48
iron sector37, 41
Kaizen45
Kaizen Training Institute45
Leather Industry Development Institute (LIDI)43, 44
leather sector33, 36–7, 42, 43–5, 47
liberalization of trade/economy30
macroeconomic policy29, 30, 42
marketing44–5
meat sector42, 47
metal sector33, 47
Ministry of Trade and Industry (MoTI)44, 46
new directions12
non-metallic minerals sector32n, 33, 37, 41
ownership types36
paper and printing sector37, 41
patterns of industrial productivity40–1
pharmaceuticals sector47
Plan of Action for Sustainable Development and Eradication of Poverty (PASDEP)31, 42, 43, 45, 46n
price controls30n
productivity40–1
Revolution29
rubber and plastics sector36, 37
sectoral composition of industrial sector33, 34, 41
service sector31
size of firms33, 40–1
state ownership29–30
steel sector41
structural adjustment10, 30, 46
structural characteristics4
Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP)31
Ten-year Development Plan29
Ten-year Perspective Plan29
Textile and Apparel Institute44
textile sector28, 32n, 33, 36–7, 41–5, 47
Textile sector Development Institute (TIDI)43, 44
twinning programmes44
value added in manufacturing8, 12–13
wood sector37
World Bank30
European Union
and Cambodia227, 229
Euro-Med initiative/Barcelona Declaration12, 184
and Tunisia12, 17, 175–6, 179, 183–5, 187, 261, 269
exchange rates, and Washington Consensus9
exports
changing nature of258
comparative framework15, 17–18
emerging Asia14–15
(p.280) Export Processing Zones (EPZs)269
infrastructure263
maintaining an export push266–8
service sector261
Federal Reserve9
First World War156–7
foreign direct investment (FDI)
attracting271–3
comparative framework15, 18–19
foreign exchange9, 10
France
and Cambodia13, 214, 215
patents188
and Senegal146, 149, 151
and Tunisia174, 176–7, 184, 185
and Vietnam236
Gambia150
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)175, 184
geographic distribution see industrial agglomeration
German East Africa Company156
Germany
and Cambodia215
and Senegal139
and Tanzania156
and Tunisia184, 185
Ghana50–70
Acheampong administration52
agricultural sector51–2, 54
agro-industries56, 62, 69–70
apparel/garments sector62–3
building materials sector51
Busia administration52
Business Assistance Fund (BAF)55, 58
cement sector69
competition/competitiveness53, 54, 56, 57, 63, 66, 67–8, 70
construction sector55, 56, 58–60, 62, 69
context2
Convention Peoples Party (CPP)50–1
current structure of industrial sector58–66
Divestiture Implementation Programme57
Economic Recovery Programme (EERP)53, 54, 57
electrical and electronics sector51, 83
electricity rates150
electricity supply53, 54, 56, 58, 59, 60
emerging policy issues70
employment57, 59–60, 62, 63, 66, 68
evolution of industry50–8
exchange rates52–5, 57, 67
Export Processing Zones (EPZs)55, 61, 62
exports51–2, 56–7, 63–7, 266
FDI19, 55, 62, 63
food and beverage sector63, 66
foreign exchange52, 57, 62
Fund for Small and Medium Enterprises Development (FUSMED)55, 58
gas sector62, 67, 69
GDP, share of manufacturing in5
Ghana Competition Commission67
Ghana Free Zones Board (GFZB)58, 61, 62
Ghana Investment Centre (GIC)53, 58, 62
Ghana Standards Board63, 69
Ghana Textile Manufacturing Company (GTMC)63
Ghana Textile Product (GTP)63
Ghana Trade and Investment Gateway (GHATIG)55, 58
GIPC Act58
Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategies (GPRS)56
growth rate of industry and sub-sectors53–4
IMF56
imports54, 57, 62, 67
import substitution50, 51–2, 57, 62
income distribution70
industrial agglomeration18, 60–2, 70
industrialization6, 7, 9
industrial policy framework66–70
industrial relations54
inflation67
infrastructure51, 54, 58–9, 62, 68, 69
institutions68–9
interest rates52, 53, 57, 63
investment climate11, 68
iron sector70
joint ventures51, 60
liberalization of trade/economy50, 51, 53–4, 56–8, 62
licensing51, 53, 57
machinery sector51
macroeconomic policy51, 52, 53, 67
marketing56
mining sector51, 55–6, 58–60, 69
National Agency for the Protection of Consumers67
National Industrial Policy69
National Liberation Council (NLC)52n
National Redemption Council52
new directions12
Nkrumah administration50–1, 52n
oil sector58, 60–2, 67, 69–70
ownership types60, 63
poverty70
Poverty Reduction Strategy Programme (PRSP)56
power54, 56, 58, 62, 69
price controls52, 57
(p.281) Private Enterprise and Export Development Fund (PEED)55
privatization53, 57
productivity63–6
quarrying sector56, 58, 59, 60
regulations68–9
research and development69
sectoral composition of industrial sector58–9
service sector52, 58
size of firms59
skills gap264
special economic zones270
standards68–9
state ownership51, 60
steel sector70
structural adjustment10, 11, 53, 62
structural characteristics4
tariffs51, 53, 57, 58
textile sector62–3, 69
Trade and Investment Programme (TIP)55, 58
trade policy11, 53, 57, 67
value added in manufacturing8, 12, 13
wage levels66
water supply53–4, 56, 58–60, 69
World Bank56
Global Services Location Index (GSLI)187
Great Britain
and Ghana6, 50
and Kenya156
and Nigeria115
and Tanzania156
and Uganda191, 192
Herfindahl Index151
Hong Kong228
human capital
Africa257, 262, 264–5
comparative framework15–16
investment climate262, 264–5
skills gap264–5
import substitution (IS)6–9, 257
India
Leather and Leather Products Technology Institute44
productivity164
Software Technology Parks of India270
textile sector85
trade logistics267
and Tunisia185
Indonesia164
industrial agglomeration
comparative framework15, 18
supporting269–71
information and communications technology (ICT)
industrial agglomerations269–70
investment climate263
service sector261
infrastructure
Africa257
comparative framework15–16
export push266, 267
industrial agglomeration269, 270, 271
investment climate262–4
tasks, trade in261
innovation, service sector205
institutions
Africa257
comparative framework15, 16–17
export push266, 267, 268
FDI promotion271–2
investment climate262, 265
tasks, trade in261
interest rates, and Washington Consensus9
International Committee on the Reconstruction of Cambodia217
International Convention and Centre106
international financial institutions (IFIs)9, 10 see also World Bank
International Labour Organization (ILO)76, 227
International Monetary Fund (IMF)9
internet connectivity263
investment climate273
Africa11, 12, 257, 262–5
emerging Asia14 see also foreign direct investment
Ireland271–2
Italy184, 185, 188
Japan227
Jordan175, 188
Kagera war163, 170
Kampala agreement158
Kenya72–89
agricultural sector73, 80, 82
agro-industries77, 88
apparel/garments sector73, 75, 77, 81–3, 85, 87–8
British East Africa Company156
cement sector86
chemical sector88
churning83
communication sector77
competition/competitiveness74, 75, 81, 85, 86–7
construction sector86
consumer goods77
context2
corruption75
crime75
(p.282) Economic Management for Renewed Growth study74
Economic Recovery Strategy75, 76, 86
electrical machinery sector83, 88
employment72–3, 77, 81–2, 83
entrepreneurship76, 84
Essential Goods Production Support Programme74
evolution of industrial policies72–5
Export Compensation Scheme74
Export Processing Zones (EPZs)74, 75
Export Promotion Council74
exports73–7, 86, 89, 266
FDI19, 76, 156
food and beverage sector73, 77, 81, 82, 85, 88
foreign exchange76
forestry sector80
furniture sector77, 83
GDP, share of manufacturing in5
human capital89
imports74, 76, 80, 86
import substitution72–3, 76, 80
industrial agglomeration77
industrialization7, 75–7, 156
industry promotion policies, industries, and laws78–9
informal sector73, 76, 77, 81
infrastructure75, 80, 86, 89
inter-East Africa trade158
investment climate11
iron sector86
joint ventures88
Kenya Association of Manufactures86
leather sector73, 77, 87
legal status of firms85
liberalization of trade/economy74, 76, 80, 81, 85
licensing74
macroeconomic policy76
Manufacturing under Bond (MUB)74
metal sector83, 85
motor vehicle repairs77
National Industrial Policy (NIP)75, 88
National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) government76
new directions12
oil crisis73
oil sector77, 86, 88
ownership types84–5, 88
paint sector83
paper and printing sector73, 86
poverty75
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper75
power89
price controls74, 76
productivity72, 75, 86–8, 89
quotas75
real estate sector86
research and development89
rubber and plastics sector86
sectoral composition of industrial sector77–80
security89
size of firms82–3, 88–9
soap sector83
special economic zones270
steel sector86
structural adjustment10, 74, 76
structure of industrial sector4, 77–85
sunrise and sunset industries85–6
tariffs72, 74, 156
textile sector73, 77, 81–2, 85, 88
tobacco sector73, 79, 81, 82
trade policy86
transport77, 89
value added in manufacturing8, 12–13, 79, 80
VAT74
Vision 203012, 75, 76, 86
wage levels87
water supply89
wood sector77
World Bank74
Korea, Republic of80, 220, 269
Latin America, structural adjustment loans9
Learning to Compete1–2
liberalization of trade/economy10, 257
Liberia150
logistics, trade267–8
Lon Nol215
Malawi108
Malaysia80
Mali150
Mauritius7n, 17n, 80, 152
Metal Box157
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)263
Morocco175, 188
Mozambique92–111
agricultural sector92–3, 95–6
aluminium processing102
apparel/garments sector104
balance of payments95, 100
building materials sector107
cashew sector94
chemical sector104
civil war95–7
coal sector101, 102
competition/competitiveness17, 104, 106, 109
construction sector94–6, 101–4, 111
(p.283) context2
corruption106
current structure of industrial sector101–4
domestic savings109
Economic Rehabilitation Program (PRE)96, 97, 98, 104, 105, 109
electricity supply93, 101–2, 103, 108
employment93, 97, 101, 103, 104, 107
entrepreneurship104, 106–8, 109, 111
evolution of industry92–101
exchange rates105
exports93–4, 96, 101, 105–6
FDI19, 100, 101, 103–4
financial/banking sector109
fisheries sector95, 96
food and beverage sector102, 104
foreign exchange98
Frelimo government7, 94, 95, 96
furniture sector104
gas sector101, 102
human capital95, 100, 107–8
IMF104
imports100, 105–6
import substitution94, 96
industrial agglomeration18
industrialization7
Industrial Policy and Strategies (IPSs)11, 99–101, 111
industrial policy framework104–10
inflation105
informal sector96
infrastructure93, 96, 101, 111
innovation109
Institute for the Promotion of micro, small, and medium enterprises (IPEME)106
institutions17, 100, 106
interest rates109
investment climate11, 100, 106, 109
Investment Promotion Centre106
iron sector94
joint ventures100
liberalization of trade/economy96, 97–8, 100, 104
liberalization war7, 94
licensing111
literacy107
machinery sector104
macroeconomic policy104–5
metal sector95, 96, 102, 104
minerals sector104
mining sector94, 100–4
Ministry of Finance105
Mozambique Revenue Authority105
new directions12
oil crisis94
oil sector94, 95, 108
ownership types103–4
paper and printing sector104
Plano de Fomento93, 94
power94–5, 104, 108
price controls105
privatization97, 98, 100, 104, 105
productivity96, 97, 98
profits106
publishing sector104
regulations106
Renamo96
research and development110
rubber sector95
size of firms102–3
skills gap264
soap sector95
Social and Economic Rehabilitation Program (PRES)96
state ownership95, 97, 103
steel sector94
structural adjustment11, 97
structural characteristics4
sugar sector94, 105
tariffs105
taxation105
technology109–10
textile sector94, 95, 96, 98, 104
trade policy105–6
transport16, 94
value added in manufacturing8, 13
VAT105, 106
water supply94–5, 101–3, 108
wood sector104
World Bank97, 104, 107
MTN191n
multi-fibre agreement (MFA)219, 261
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIA)106
Museveni, Yoweri191
Myanmar226
Niger150
Nigeria115–34
Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF)133
agricultural sector115–16, 118–20, 129, 131, 133
agro-industries132–3
apparel/garments sector122–6
balance of payments119
Bank of Industry (BoI)121, 127, 132
Bureau of Public Enterprises (BPE)132
cement sector118
Central Bank of Nigeria127, 131, 133
civil war115, 117, 118, 133
cocoa sector120
communication sector125, 128, 132
(p.284) competition/competitiveness11, 120, 121, 126, 128, 129
construction sector123, 124, 125
consumer goods119, 120, 131
context2
corruption124–5, 133
crime124, 125
customs128, 132
Customs and Excise Department132
domestic savings128
Duty Drawback Scheme131
Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)132
Economic Implementation Team127
ECOWAS128, 131
electrical and electronics sector126
electricity supply124, 125, 130
employment119, 127
enterprise zones130
entrepreneurship118, 121, 130
evolution of industry116–22
exchange rates121, 128, 129
Export Development Fund Scheme131
Export Processing Zones131
exports115, 119–20, 123, 126, 128, 131–2
FDI19, 117, 123, 126, 133
Federal Ministry of Finance128
Federal Ministry of Industry, Trade and Investment127
Federal Ministry of Science and Technology127
financial/banking sector131–2
food and beverage sector122–6, 132
foreign exchange117, 119, 120
free trade zones126
furniture sector123, 124, 125
gas sector115, 129, 132, 133
human capital118, 120–1, 123–4, 129, 130
ICT sector126–7, 132
IMF116, 117, 119, 120
imports119, 120, 128, 131
import substitution115, 117–18
Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission132
industrial agglomeration126, 130
industrialization7, 9
industrial parks130
industrial policy framework127–33
inflation119, 120, 128, 129
infrastructure117–18, 124, 126, 129, 132, 133
innovation121, 122
institutions131–2
interest rates119, 121, 128, 129
investment climate11, 129
iron sector118
joint ventures133
liberalization of trade/economy117, 121–2, 128
machinery sector126
macroeconomic policy128–9
Manufacture-in-Bond Scheme131
marketing120, 121
minerals sector133
mining sector133
National Agency for Food, Drug Administration and Control132
National Association of Small-Scale Industrialists128
National Communication Commission132
National Development Plans117, 118–19
National Economic Council (NEC)127
National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS)11, 121, 128, 131
National Economic Management Team127
National Economic Reconstruction Fund (NERFUND)121
National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA)132
National Planning Commission127
Nigerian Export Promotion Council127, 132
Nigerian Agricultural and Cooperative Bank132
Nigerian Agricultural, Cooperatives and Rural Development Bank132
Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industry132
Nigerian Customs Service128
Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Act118
Nigerian Export Processing Zone Authority (NEPZA)126, 127
Nigerian Industrial Development Bank132
Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC)127, 131, 132
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation133
Nigeria Vision 2020 (NV20:2020)122, 129, 133
Oil and Gas Export Free Zone131
Oil & Gas Free Zone Authority126
oil crisis116, 118–19
oil sector115–17, 128–9, 132–3
paper and printing sector118
Peoples Bank132
poverty115
power117, 133
price controls120
privatization120, 121, 128
productivity119, 125–6
quotas138
(p.285) Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC)121, 127
regulations131–2
research and development121
rubber sector120
salt sector118
science and technology (S&T) policy120–1
sectoral composition of industrial sector122–3
service sector133
Seven Point Agenda (SPA)128–9
size of firms123
Small & Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN)127, 132
Small and Medium Industries Equity Investment Scheme121
special economic zones270
standards121, 132
Standards Organisation of Nigeria (SON)121, 132
steel sector118
structural adjustment10, 11, 116, 117, 119–21
structure of industry4, 122–7
tanning sector120
tariffs120, 121, 128, 131
taxation118, 120, 132–3
technology118, 120–1, 122, 123–4
textile sector119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 127
tobacco sector126
trade policy131
transport123, 124, 125
value added in manufacturing8, 12, 13
wage levels120, 123
water supply124
wood sector123, 124, 125
World Bank116, 117, 119, 122
official development assistance (ODA)263–4
offshoring261
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)258, 263–4
Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)106
PETROMOC108
Portugal92, 93–4, 95
poverty and productivity86
power
comparative framework16
industrial agglomeration270
investment climate262
Prebisch-Singer hypothesis155
Printex63
privatization10, 257
productivity
Africa versus Asia259–60
and export push266
industrial agglomerations269
and poverty86
and profitability86
pursuit of industry1–20
Africa6–13
comparative framework15–19
emerging Asia13–15
industrialization, structural transformation, and growth3–5
regional integration, strengthening268
regulations
comparative framework16–17
export push266, 268
investment climate262, 265
Rwanda76, 195
SABMiller101
Second World War156
Senegal136–53
Accelerated Growth Strategy (SCA)11, 142, 143
Agency for the Development and Supervision of SMEs (ADEPME)142
agricultural sector136, 137, 147, 152
agro-industries147, 152
balance of payments140
brain drain149, 153
Centre Unique de Collecte de Information (CUCI)148
chemical sector144, 147, 149, 152
competition/competitiveness136, 140, 142–3, 151
construction sector144, 146, 147, 149, 152
context2
customs138, 141
Dakar Industrial Free Trade Zone (ZFID)138–9
electricity supply144, 149–50, 152–3
employment140, 142, 144–8, 153
entrepreneurship141, 143
evolution of industrial policy137–43
exchange rates143
exports136, 138, 140, 151–2
FDI19, 143, 146–7, 153
financial/banking sector141–2
fisheries sector144
food and beverage sector144, 149, 152
foundry sector149
glassware and pottery sector144, 146, 152
human capital143, 149–50, 153
import substitution137–8, 139, 151
industrial agglomeration18, 142, 143, 153
industrialization6–7
industrial policy150–1
industrial redeployment policy (PRI)143
industrial zones138–9, 142
(p.286) inflation140
informal sector142, 152
infrastructure141, 143, 150, 152–3
innovation136, 143
investment climate11, 138, 140
Investment Promotion and Major Projects Agency (APIX)142
leather sector144
liberalization of trade/economy139–40, 141–2, 151
literacy149
machinery sector144
marketing139
metallurgy149
Modernization Office142
National Agency of Statistics and Demography (ANSD)148
National Company for Industrial Research and Development (SONEPI)138
National Industrial Policy (NIP)141
National Social and Economic Development Strategy (SNDES)143
new agricultural policy (NPA)140
new industrial policy (NPI)140
oil sector152
paper and printing sector147
poverty143
power143, 149–50
price controls141
privatization141, 153
productivity147–50
profits136
regulations141
rubber sector144, 149
Senegalese Export Creation Agency (ASEPEX)142
Senegalese Standards Institute142
Senegal National Electricity Company (SENELEC)150, 153
service sector136, 137, 144
size of firms143–4
special economic zones270
standards142
structural adjustment10, 139–40, 151
structure of industrial sector4, 143–7
sugar sector144, 149
sunrise and sunset industries151–2
tariffs138, 139, 140–1, 151
taxation138–9, 140, 141, 148
trade policy150–1
transport153
utilities sector144
value added in manufacturing8, 12–13
water supply144, 153
service sector258
agglomeration269–70
export push267
innovation205
new opportunities261
structural transformation5
Seychelles152
Sihanouk, Prince214–15
Singapore80, 269
Sisowath Sirik Matak215
Software Technology Parks of India (STPI)270
South Africa80, 108, 152
South African Development Community (SADC)99, 105, 106, 108
South Sudan195
Soviet Union14, 217, 236
Spain184, 188
spatial distribution see industrial agglomeration
special economic zones (SEZs)269–71, 272
Special Programme of Assistance for Africa10
state ownership6–9, 10
Statistical Abstract and Economic Survey87
structural adjustment and transformation3–5
Africa9–11, 257
emerging Asia14–15
Swaziland108
Taiwan193, 228, 269
Tanganyika Development Corporation158
Tanganyika Packers157
Tanzania155–72
agricultural sector156, 163, 165, 167, 170–1
agro-industries157, 170
apparel/garments sector162
Arusha declaration7, 157, 160, 161, 170
balance of payments161–2, 163, 165, 166
Basic Industrial Strategy (BIS)162n, 166, 170
chemical sector170
civil service165
coffee sector163
competition/competitiveness11, 164, 168, 169, 171, 172
consumer goods158, 161, 162–3
context2
current account158, 163, 164
customs168
East African Community168
East African Strategy (EAS)162n, 166
Economic and Social Action Programme (ESAP)155, 166
Economic Development Zones170
Economic Recovery Programme (ERP)155, 165–6, 170
electricity charges108
employment157, 159–60, 162, 166–8, 171, 172
engineering sector167
entrepreneurship157
exchange rates161, 162, 165, 170
(p.287) Export Processing Zone (EPZ) Act168–9
Export Rebate System (ERS)163
exports157–8, 162–3, 165, 167–9
FDI19, 157, 159, 160
fertilizer sector170
Finance Act161
Five-year Development Plans155, 157, 159–60
food and beverage sector157, 163, 169, 171
foreign exchange161, 163, 164, 168
Foreign Investment Protection Act157
furniture sector171
GDP, share of manufacturing in5
General Retention Scheme (GRS)163, 170
historical developments155–7
human capital157, 159, 164, 172
IMF163
imports158, 161, 162, 163, 164, 170
import substitution157–60, 163, 167, 170
income distribution162
industrialization7, 9, 155, 157–70
inflation161, 163, 164, 165, 167, 168
infrastructure157, 170, 171–2
innovation171, 172
Integrated Industrial Development Strategy (IIDS)11, 155, 169–70
interest rates167
investment climate11, 158, 159, 165–8, 170–1
iron sector170
joint ventures160
Kagera war163, 170
leather sector170
liberalization of trade/economy155, 165, 167
licensing160, 164, 170
life expectancy159
literacy156
machinery sector170
macroeconomic policy167, 168
marketing165
Maximum Growth Strategy (MGS)162n, 166
metal sector158
mining sector169
Mixed Strategy (MS)162n, 166
monitoring and evaluation (M&E)172
National Development Corporation160
National Economic Survival Programme (NESP)163, 170
National Industries Licensing and Registration Act160
National Investment Act170–1
National Price Control Advisory Board161
New Retention Scheme170
oil crisis161, 163
ownership types159, 160, 166
poverty171
power16, 157, 171–2
Price Control Act161
price controls161, 164, 170
privatization155, 165, 167, 171
productivity158–61, 163–4, 166–7, 169, 170
regulations158, 160, 161, 170
research and development165
SIDO170
Small-scale Rural Strategy (SSRS)162n, 166
special economic zones270
state ownership160, 166, 170
State Trading Corporation160
steel sector170
structural adjustment10, 11, 162, 163–70
structural characteristics4
Sustainable Development Policy for Tanzania (SIDP2020)167–8, 169, 171
Sustainable Industrial Development Programme155
Tanzania Industrial Research Development Organization (TIRDO)165
tariffs156, 165, 168
taxation158, 159, 166, 170–1
technology162, 165, 167, 168, 171, 172
textile sector166, 167, 170, 171
three-year development plan (TYP)157–60
tobacco sector169, 171
tourism171
transport171
twenty-year basic industry strategy162
value added by manufacturing8, 12, 13, 80
Vision 2025168
wood sector171
World Bank165–6
tariffs
export push266, 267
structural adjustment10
tasks, trade in258, 260–1, 267–8
taxation, and export push266, 267
technology
communications costs260
Togo150
tourism
export push267
infrastructure263
new opportunities261
skills gap264
trade logistics267–8
training see human capital
(p.288) transport
comparative framework16
costs, in global economy260, 261
export push266, 268
investment infrastructure262–3
Tunisia174–89, 273
agricultural sector174, 177, 180, 182
agro-industries182–4, 188–9
apparel/garments sector178, 182–3, 185, 188–9, 261
Arab Spring176, 180–2
automotive components176, 177, 180, 261
balance of payments184
Barcelona Declaration184
building materials sector188–9
chemical sector183, 188–9
civil service174, 176–7
communication sector176
competition/competitiveness7, 12, 175, 179, 183–5, 189
context2–3
corruption176
current account178, 179, 180
customs178, 186
diversification152
Economic Recovery and Structural Adjustment Programme (ERSAP)175, 179
electrical and electronics sector176, 180, 183, 184, 185, 188–9
electricity supply174, 177
employment176–8, 180–5, 189
entrepreneurship176
and the EU12, 17, 175–6, 179, 183–5, 187, 261, 269
evolution of industry176–82
exchange rates175, 179
Export Promotion Centre (CEPEX)174, 178
exports17–18, 20, 174–80, 183–9, 266
food and beverage sector174, 178, 182, 183, 184, 188–9
free trade agreement (FTA)175
gas sector186
human capital175, 177, 180, 187, 189
ICT sector181
imports175, 177–8, 183–4
import substitution174, 177
industrial agglomeration18, 178, 181, 189, 269
industrialization7, 257–8
Industrial Land Agency (AFI)178
Industrial Modernization Programme (PMI)12, 175, 179, 185
industrial policy185–8
Industry Promotion Agency (API)174, 177–8, 184
inflation178, 179
infrastructure175–6, 181, 187, 189
innovation187–8
institutions174, 177
investment climate176–82, 186, 188, 189
investment law (Law 72–83)178, 186
joint ventures180
leather sector178, 183, 188–9
liberalization of trade/economy175, 176, 179
literacy177, 181
machinery sector184
mechanical industry sector176, 180, 183, 188–9
mining sector174
Ministry of Higher Education Scientific Research and Technology (MHESRT)187
new directions12
offshoring184–5, 187
oil crisis184
oil sector177, 184, 186
ownership types178, 183, 186
paper and printing sector177
patents187
poverty177, 181
power181, 182
privatization175, 179, 180, 186
productivity178, 179, 184
Programme de mise à niveau12, 175, 179, 187
research and development187–8
rubber sector188–9
service sector175, 176, 180, 182
social security contributions182
steel sector177
structural adjustment10, 179, 183, 184
structure of industry4, 182–5
sunrise and sunset industries188–9
tariffs175, 184
tasks, trade in260–1
taxation175, 177, 178, 179, 182, 186
technology175, 180, 185
textile sector174, 176–8, 180, 182–5, 188–9
tourism174, 175–8, 180, 181
trade policy175, 179
transport174, 176, 177, 181
value added in manufacturing8, 13
VAT175, 179, 186
wage levels178, 185
water supply174, 177
World Bank175, 184
Uganda191–209
agricultural sector191–2, 194, 208
aid financing204
Amin regime191, 193, 206
apparel/garments sector199
balance of payments193
Business Register195, 198, 200, 201, 202
(p.289) chemical sector193
civil war191
coffee sector198
communication sector191n
competition/competitiveness192, 195, 204, 205, 206
construction sector194, 199, 200, 201–2, 207
context2
corruption191
customs204
domestic savings193
Economic Recovery Programme205
electricity supply194, 208
Emergency Relief and Rehabilitation Programme205
employment191–2, 198, 200, 202, 205, 208
evolution of industry192–4
exchange rates204
exports192–3, 195, 197, 199, 204–5, 208
Five-year Development Plans192–3
foreign exchange204, 205
gas sector208
GDP, share of manufacturing in5, 194
grain milling sector198
human capital205, 208, 209
ICT sector207
IMF203, 205
imports193, 195, 204, 207
import substitution206
industrial agglomeration18, 197–8, 200, 202, 208
industrialization7
Industrialization Policy and Framework205
industrial policy framework203–6
inflation203
informal sector194, 195n, 199, 200
infrastructure193, 195, 198, 205–9
innovation205
institutions16–17, 203, 205–6
inter-East Africa trade158
interest rates207
investment climate193, 198, 204, 205
iron sector199
joint ventures202, 203
Kagera war163
Kenyan exports to76
liberalization of trade/economy192, 195, 203, 207, 208
life expectancy192
machinery sector193
macroeconomic policy203–4
Management Training and Advisory Centre (MTAC)206
Medium-term Competitiveness Strategies205
mining sector192, 194, 199–201, 203, 207–8
Ministry of Trade, Industry and Co-operatives205–6
National Development Plans (NDPs)191, 200, 205, 208
National Industrial Policy205
National Resistance Movement191
oil sector208, 209
ownership types198, 200–1, 202, 203
power16, 150, 208
productivity198–9
quarrying sector194, 199–201, 207
regulations205–6
sectoral composition of industrial sector195, 196
service sector191n
size of firms195–7, 199–200, 201
skills gap264
state ownership206
structural adjustment10, 11
structure of industry4, 194–5
sub-sectoral analysis195–203
sunrise and sunset industries206–8
tariffs156, 193, 204
taxation205
tea processing sector198
technology199, 203, 205, 208, 209
Textile Board206
textile sector206–7
tourism191n
trade policy204
transport16
treasury bills203, 204
Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS)195
Uganda Export Promotion Board (UEPB)205, 206
Uganda Industrial Research Institute (UIRI)206
Uganda National Bureau of Standards206
Ugandan Investment Authority (UIA)198, 205
value added by manufacturing8, 12, 13, 80, 197
water supply194
Way Forward I and II205
World Bank203, 204, 205
United Nations (UN)
Cambodia217
Development Programme (UNDP)107
Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)107
Sustainable Development Goals264–5
University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)1
(p.290) United States of America
African Growth and Opportunities Act (AGOA)75, 76, 85, 261
and Cambodia215, 226, 227
Clinton administration227
Federal Reserve9
and Kenya75, 76, 85
Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)187–8
quotas227
Treasury9
and Vietnam14, 239, 242
value-added tax (VAT), and export push267
Vietnam235–56, 273
agricultural sector236, 239–42, 248
apparel/garments sector235, 240, 251, 253, 260
bauxite sector249
cement sector240
chemical sector255
coal sector236, 240, 243, 246
communication sector241
competition/competitiveness14, 235, 242, 249, 250, 254–6
construction sector239, 242
consumer goods239
context3
current structure of industrial sector243–6
Department of Economic Zones14, 248
Doi Moi14, 217, 235, 240, 244, 247, 271
domestic savings241
electrical and electronics sector249
electricity supply240, 246
employment239, 242, 243–4, 245
Enterprise Development Agency14, 248
entrepreneurship236, 239, 242
evolution of industry236–42
exchange rates247
export processing zones (EPZs)14, 241, 242
fabricated metals sector235, 251, 252–3
fertilizer sector247
financial/banking sector241, 248, 249
fisheries sector240, 241, 242
Five-year Plans239, 240, 241, 242
food and beverage sector235, 240, 241, 251, 252
food relief to Cambodia217
Foreign Investment Agency (FIA)14, 248
Foreign Investment Law241
forestry sector240, 241, 242
furniture sector253
gas sector243
handicraft sector240
human capital248, 254
ICT sector249, 250
imports242, 247, 255
import substitution235, 255
industrial agglomeration18, 246, 269
industrialization13, 14, 257–8
industrial policy framework247–51
industrial zones (IZs)14, 241, 242, 246
inflation239, 247
infrastructure236, 239, 241, 254
institutions248–9
investment climate247, 249, 255
Law on Encouragement of Domestic Investment241
Law on Enterprises241, 242, 255
liberalization of trade/economy250, 253
licensing249
lignite mining246
literacy236
macroeconomic policy14, 247
mechanical industry sector249
media sector245, 253
metal sector251, 253
mineral sector251
mining sector242, 243, 246, 253
Ministry of Industry and Trade248, 249
Ministry of Planning and Investment14, 248
motor vehicles sector251
oil sector239, 240, 243, 246
Orientation of Industrial Development241
ownership types244–6
paper and printing sector240, 253
pharmaceuticals sector235, 252–3
poverty241
power239
price controls240n
privatization246
productivity235, 239, 245–6, 250, 253–6, 260
Public Investment Programme241
quarrying sector246, 253
quotas247
real estate sector247
regulations247, 248–9
research and development249, 250
rice sector236, 240, 247
rubber sector236, 249
sectoral composition243
service sector240, 241, 242
sewerage sector246
size of firms243–4, 245
Socio-Economic Development Strategy (SEDS)248, 254, 255, 256
(p.291) special economic zones18
standards249
State Bank of Vietnam249
state ownership14, 235, 239, 242, 244–7, 249, 255, 256
steel sector240, 249, 250
structural characteristics4
structural reform and the export push14, 15, 20
sugar sector241
sunrise and sunset industries251–4
tasks, trade in260
technology241, 250, 255
textile sector240, 250–1, 255
tobacco sector245
tourism241
trade policy14, 247–8
transport239, 253
value added in manufacturing8
Vietnam Development Bank248
wage levels226
war with the US14, 239
water supply246
World Bank242, 248, 253, 255
zinc sector240
wage levels
Africa versus Asia258–9
OECD countries258
and productivity86
tasks, trade in261
Washington Consensus9–11
welfare86, 181
West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)141
West African Monetary Union (WAMU)140–1
World Bank (WB)
Doing Business report265
investment climate11, 262
manufacturing datasets87
Private Sector Development Program107
Trade Logistics Index267
Washington Consensus9
Zambia108, 150