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The Spread of Modern Industry to the Periphery since 1871$
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Kevin Hjortshøj O'Rourke and Jeffrey Gale Williamson

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198753643

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198753643.001.0001

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From Artisanal Production to Machine Tools

From Artisanal Production to Machine Tools

Industrialization in India over the Long Run

(p.229) 10 From Artisanal Production to Machine Tools
The Spread of Modern Industry to the Periphery since 1871

Bishnupriya Gupta

Tirthankar Roy

Oxford University Press

This chapter documents the decline and rise of industrial production in India. As the economy integrated into the British Empire’s global network, there was a rapid decline in artisanal and cottage industries in the nineteenth century and a rising share of commodity exports. However, modern industries also developed in cotton textiles, jute, and tea under the entrepreneurship of British and Indian interests and with little support from the state. After independence in 1947, India adopted the planned development of an industrial sector, by regulating foreign trade and investment. Initial attempts succeeded in building a large capital goods sector, but import substitution ran out of steam. Indian industries remained inefficient and failed to match East Asia’s successful entry to the world market in industrial goods. Re-integration into the global economy after 1980 led to efficiency gains, but rising growth in recent years has been led by the services rather than industry.

Keywords:   India, manufacturing, cottage industry, modern industry, import-substituting industrialization, capital goods, planned economy, services, economic history, economic policy

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