In this chapter, the Rutherford scattering formula is derived using quantum mechanics. The kinematics of the quark–parton model (QPM) are described. The differential cross section for neutrino and antineutrino scattering on electrons is derived. This is generalized to give the QPM prediction for the cross section for scattering on nuclei. The key experiments supporting this model are reviewed with emphasis on the importance of scaling. Indirect and direct evidence for gluons is described. An elementary introduction to quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is given. The concept of running coupling constants is introduced in the context of QED and QCD. The concept of asymptotic freedom is used to explain the success of the QPM. Scaling violations are explained in terms of QCD, and a description is given of how the data can be used to determine the gluon distribution function. Finally, the QPM is generalized to the case of hadron–hadron scattering.
Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.