This chapter deals with periphrases formed in the domain of perfect aspect. This mainly concerns εἰμί with the perfect participle (as in ἦν τετελευτηκώς ‘he was dead’). Previous research has claimed that the construction remained stative throughout its entire history, but a more complex scenario is argued for. It is shown that already in the Classical period the construction came to be used with an anterior aspectual function (as in ἀκηκοότες ἦσαν ‘they had heard’), similarly to the synthetic perfect. This is a development which can be understood in terms of transitivization, that is, the construction being used in more transitive contexts. However, in the Post-Classical period, εἰμί with the perfect participle underwent a functional specialization as a resultative perfect periphrasis, due to the appearance of a new construction: εἰμί with the aorist participle (as in εἰμί ποιήσας ‘I have done’). Aside from these two constructions, attention is drawn to various innovative perfect constructions, whose existence has been completely overlooked in most previous accounts.
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