In this chapter, the baseline results obtained when using ‘nearest neighbour’ propensity score matching are presented. The overall findings suggest that individuals with ADHD (the treatment groups) exhibit weak performance on a large set of performance measures compared to non-ADHD individuals (the matched control groups). Performance measures are grouped based on occupational status, income, educational attainment, crime and traffic accidents, childhood outcomes, family composition, and health measures. The matched control group is selected by pairing each ADHD individual from the treatment groups with a non-ADHD individual who is similar with respect to observable variables. Specifically, a non-ADHD individual is selected for the matched control group if he possesses the background characteristics that are most similar to those of a specific ADHD individual in the treatment group. Background variables include demographic characteristics and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses.
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