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How the Mind Comes into BeingIntroducing Cognitive Science from a Functional and Computational Perspective$
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Martin V. Butz and Esther F. Kutter

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198739692

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198739692.001.0001

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Cognition is Embodied

Cognition is Embodied

(p.45) Chapter 3 Cognition is Embodied
How the Mind Comes into Being

Martin V. Butz

Esther F. Kutter

Oxford University Press

With the motivation to develop computational and algorithmic levels of understanding how the mind comes into being, this chapter considers computer science, artificial intelligence, and cognitive systems perspectives. Questions are addressed, such as what ‘intelligence’ may actually be and how, and when an artificial system may be considered to be intelligent and to have a mind on its own. May it even be alive? Out of these considerations, the chapter derives three fundamental problems for cognitive systems: the symbol grounding problem, the frame problem, and the binding problem. We show that symbol-processing artificial systems cannot solve these problems satisfactorily. Neural networks and embodied systems offer alternatives. Moreover, biological observations and studies with embodied robotic systems imply that behavioral capabilities can foster and facilitate the development of suitably abstracted, symbolic structures. We finally consider Alan Turing’s question “Can machines think?” and emphasize that such machines must at least solve the three considered fundamental cognitive systems problems. The rest of the book addresses how the human brain, equipped with a suitably-structured body and body–brain interface, manages to solve these problems, and thus manages to develop a mind.

Keywords:   cognitive science, artificial intelligence, cognitive systems, intelligence, adaptation, frame problem, symbol grounding problem, binding problem, Turing test, Chinese Room problem

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