This introductory chapter first sets out the book’s purpose, namely to describe two modes of reasoning used for inductive inference and the interaction between them. The first is case-based, and it refers to prediction by analogies, that is, by the eventualities observed in similar past cases. The second is rule‐based, referring to processes where observations are used to learn which general rules, or theories, are more likely to hold, and should be used for prediction. The chapter then provides the motivation behind the present study, an overview of the subsequent chapters, and directions for future research.
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