This chapter addresses Nietzsche’s distinction between the conscious and the unconscious. Many philosophers assume that the unconscious is simply the conscious pushed out of view, that the difference between a conscious and an unconscious state is merely that the former is perceptible in a way that the latter is not. This chapter argues that this is inadequate. Conscious and unconscious states have different structures. Conscious states are not simply unconscious ones with awareness superadded; they are different kinds of states and exhibit different structures. For Nietzsche, conscious states are linguistically or conceptually articulated, whereas unconscious states have a form of nonconceptual content.
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