Science and Technology Policy to Harmonize Biologization of Economies with Food Security
This chapter takes note of the rapid move toward bioeconomy strategies in many countries around the world. It assesses the driving forces of this rapid development and the implications for agricultural economics, innovation, and food security. The future of sustainable development will depend on a secure and safe availability of food, energy, water, and industrial raw materials, which should be increasingly based on renewable resources to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Bioeconomy—the emerging, cross-cutting economic sector that produces, transforms, and uses bio-based materials—may generate new competitions for biomass. There are, however, also important synergies between technologies and creation of new links in and between value chains (e.g., production of biochemicals alongside production of biofuels, use for waste, bio-based products in chemical and building materials industries). The chapter concludes that appropriate science policy and technology (S&T) investments are needed to facilitate a bioeconomy without adverse externalities for food security.
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