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Democratic Politics in a European Union Under Stress$
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Olaf Cramme and Sara B. Hobolt

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780198724483

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198724483.001.0001

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Differentiated Integration Before and After the Crisis

Differentiated Integration Before and After the Crisis

(p.120) 7 Differentiated Integration Before and After the Crisis
Democratic Politics in a European Union Under Stress

Frank Schimmelfennig

Oxford University Press

Monetary union has always been the EU’s most differentiated policy. The euro crisis has affected differentiated integration in an ambivalent way. On the one hand, the eurozone has not broken up and has even increased its membership during the crisis, yet the institutional gap between the eurozone and the rest of the European Union has widened. In a historical-institutionalist perspective, this is a result of path-dependent development. Whereas the crisis forced the eurozone countries to integrate further in order to avoid the prohibitive costs of a breakup and consolidate the eurozone, the non-euro countries, which have not incurred the same risks, were in general not willing to give up any fiscal and financial autonomy.

Keywords:   differentiated integration, euro crisis, European Union, historical institutionalism, path-dependency

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