- Title Pages
- List of contributors
- List of abbreviations
- Chapter 1 Shared decision making
- Chapter 2 Broad versus narrow shared decision making
- Chapter 3 Embracing patient and family engagement to advance shared decision making
- Chapter 4 Overcoming implementation challenges to advance shared decision making in routine practice
- Chapter 5 Implementing shared decision making
- Chapter 6 The role of shared decision making in achieving allocative efficiency in health systems
- Chapter 7 Emerging legal issues for providers in the USA
- Chapter 8 Preparing patients ahead of time to share decisions about their health care
- Chapter 9 Demystifying decision aids
- Chapter 10 Tools to engage patients in clinical encounters
- Chapter 11 Engaging clinical teams in an interprofessional approach to shared decision making
- Chapter 12 The science and art of partnering with patients in research
- Chapter 13 The three talk model of shared decision making
- Chapter 14 Models for teaching shared decision making
- Chapter 15 Standardized patients as educational interventions
- Chapter 16 Avatars and virtual worlds
- Chapter 17 Dispelling myths about the implementation of shared decision making
- Chapter 18 What you need to know as a clinician about risk communication
- Chapter 19 Making sense of numbers about health risks—The Facts Box
- Chapter 20 Overdiagnosis and overtreatment
- Chapter 21 GRADE
- Chapter 22 The effects of patient decision aids
- Chapter 23 Implementing shared decision making
- Chapter 24 Personalized care planning
- Chapter 25 Using interventions with patients before clinical encounters to encourage their participation
- Chapter 26 Patient-reported measures of shared decision making
- Chapter 27 Observer measures of shared decision making
- Chapter 28 Implementing shared decision making
- Chapter 29 Case study
- Chapter 30 Case study
- Chapter 31 Case study
- Chapter 32 Case study
- Chapter 33 Case study
- Chapter 34 Case study
- Chapter 35 Shared decision making interventions and health inequalities
- Chapter 36 Shared decision making, health literacy, and patient empowerment
- Chapter 37 Shared decision making and motivational interviewing
- Chapter 38 Quality improvement and shared decision making
- Chapter 39 Bringing shared decision making and evidence-based practice together
- Chapter 40 Encounter tools
- Chapter 41 How can journalists do a better job reporting on the principles of shared decision making?
- Chapter 42 What can patients and patient groups do to promote shared decision making?
- Chapter 43 What can junior physicians do to help promote shared decision making?
- Chapter 44 What can experienced physicians do to help promote shared decision making?
- Chapter 45 What can medical educators do to help promote shared decision making?
A framework to evaluate the quality of evidence and facilitate shared decision making
- (p.136) Chapter 21 GRADE
- Shared Decision Making in Health Care
Michael R. Gionfriddo
M. Hassan Murad
Victor M. Montori
- Oxford University Press
GRADE is a framework for transparently rating the quality of the evidence and making recommendations based upon that assessment of quality. This transparent framework helps identify situations where evidence, values, or preferences are uncertain and highlights opportunities for shared decision making (SDM). The quality of evidence and the confidence we can have in that evidence is rated on a scale from very low to high and this rating is influenced by several factors. Starting with study design which benchmarks the confidence we can have in the evidence, evidence can then be rated down or rated up. Factors used to rate down include: risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, and publication bias. Factors used to rate up include: large effects, dose response, and confounding. After rating, recommendations can be made and strength assigned as either strong or conditional. Conditional recommendations particularly indicate a situation where SDM is appropriate.
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