Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Food Price Policy in an Era of Market InstabilityA Political Economy Analysis$

Per Pinstrup-Andersen

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780198718574

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718574.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy).date: 22 May 2019

Index

Index

Source:
Food Price Policy in an Era of Market Instability
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
(p.489) Abbott, P. 3, 6, 21–2, 259, 455n18
academic researchers, role of 93
Acharya, S.S. 348
actors and players, strengthening capacity of 96–7
Admassie, A. 10, 11, 28, 42, 43, 56, 59, 66, 121, 124, 133–50
advocacy coalition framework 81, 85, 94, 95, 99
Africa 8, 21, 22, 84n4
African Development Bank (AfDB) 289
Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) 483
aid agencies 84
Al-Shawraby, S. 259
Alfieri, A. 221
Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) 212
Alston, L.J. 395–6
Amdissa, T. 149
analytical framework 52
Anderson, K. 5–6, 119, 466
Argentina 118
Armanios, D. 262
Arndt, C. 41, 217, 221
Asian Development Bank (ADB):
and Bangladesh 246, 251
and India 357
AusAID:
and Vietnam 325
Babcock, B. 449
Babu, S.C. 4, 9, 16, 76–99, 102, 479n1
Baffes, J. 38
Baltzer, K. 4, 8, 11, 16, 21–48, 53, 57, 61, 77n1, 103, 105, 479n1
Banda, H.K. 155
Banful, A.B. 114
Bangladesh 11–12, 231–51
academic researchers and think tanks 93
agricultural production, increased through input subsidies,
investment and enhanced extension 236–7
Anti-Corruption Commission 248
Awami League (AL) government 231
Bank (BB) 237, 243, 246, 248, 250
bilateral donors 251
business associations 243–5
Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD) 243, 246–7
cereals 231
civil society organizations 91, 246–7
Constitution 251
Consumer Protection Act 238–9
Consumers’ Association (CAB) 238, 244n14
Consumers’ Rights Protection Ordinance 239
corruption 234, 247–8
dabbler (output policy response) 63
dabbler (policy response) 68
dabbler (price policy response) 60–1
dabbler (safety net policy response) 73
demand order (DO) system for sugar and edible oils 245
domestic price and trade policies 237
edible oil 236, 242n6, 245
Endowment Fund 68
export bans 238
external political economy factors 119–20
Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FBCCI) 239, 243–5
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 235–6, 243, 247
fishery, poultry and livestock 231
food price trends and shocks 232–5
formal organizational units with food security mandate 91
fragmented government and uncertainty 109
free markets 245
Household Income and Expenditure Survey (2005) 106
importer (price transmission pattern) 30, 36–41, 46
Institute of Development Studies (BIDS) 93
(p.490) international to domestic price transmission during 2007–8 crisis 22, 25, 27, 28–9, 30, 47–8
key actors and players in policy process 89–90
lentils 241, 242n6
Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce and Industry (MCCI) 243
milk 241
ministries, role of 239, 241–3
Ministry of Commerce (MoC) 93, 238–40, 241, 242, 250, 251
Ministry of Finance (MoF) 239, 242, 250
Ministry of Food and Disaster Management (MoFDM) 239, 242, 250
Ministry of Home 242
Monetary Policy Statement (MPS) 243
multi-lateral donors 251
National Agriculture Policy 236
National Board of Revenue (NBR) 241, 248
National Economic Council (NEC) 250–1
newspapers and media 247–9
observer (policy response) 59
open market sale (OMS) 245
Perspective Plan 231
Planning Commission 250–1
policy responses 74, 88–9, 236–9
policy-making process 249–51
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) 231, 236
previous crises episodes and policy responses 232
price hike, causes of 233–5
Price Monitoring Cell (PMC) 239
price trends for key food crops and price transmission 232–3
private sector 91, 121
procurement and stocking policies 237–8
pulses 236
Rifles (BDR) 237, 245, 249
safety nets (policy response) 237
Second Crop Diversification Project 246n20
Sixth Five-Year Plan (2011–15) 231
soybeans 241
stakeholders, impact of as result of price shifts in crisis period 235–6
status quo bias and path dependence 114–18
structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) 231
sugar 242n6, 244–5
Test Relief programme 72
timeline of events and responses 239, 240
and trade with India 350
Trading Corporation of Bangladesh (TCB) 241–2, 243, 248–9, 250
vegetables, spices and fruits 231, 246n20
weather/climate factors 246n20
wheat 232, 233–4, 238, 241, 248
Baris, P. 311
Barrett, C.B. 105–6
Bellemare, M.F. 123
Benin Republic 278, 281
Benson, T. 22
bilateral donors 148, 251, 266
biofuels 5–6, 15, 16, 62, 486–7
see also under specific countries
Birru, Y. 140
black market 117
Boettger, R. 115
Borot de Battisti, A. 21–2
Bouët, A. 6
Brazil 8, 10, 13–14, 345, 384–405, 434n2, 453
banking system 403–4
biodiesel 448n25
biofuel 386, 404–5
Bolsa Família conditional transfer schemes 72, 116, 385, 389, 397–9
cereals 15, 391–2
coffee 390
consumer price increase for selected food items 392
corruption 390
cotton 390
country context 386–90
dissipative inclusion 395
education 389
ethanol 437, 439n11, 450
evolution of food prices 390–7
Extraordinary Ministry of Food Security 402
fragmented government and uncertainty 110
free trader (price transmission pattern) 30, 32–4, 46
fruits 392
impact of 2007-8 food price shock 398–402
impact of food crisis on internal prices 390–2
inflation and hyperinflation 384–5, 386–7, 391
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 21–2, 30
maize 32, 390, 393
meats (beef, pork, chicken) 390, 391–2, 396
milk 391–2
monetary stability 396
National Council of Food and Nutritional Security 402
observer (output policy response) 67
observer (safety net policy response) 72
(p.491) orange juice 390
policy responses 73, 75, 88–9
policy triggers 87
political economy 397–405
political institutions, policy-making process and policy outcomes 392–7
poverty and inequality 389, 402
power of the president 392, 394
price increase incidence curve 400–1
prices of basic staples for a typical family 394
prices received by farmers vs. world market prices 393
Programme for Food Acquisition 72, 402–3
Programme for Growth Acceleration 403
public banks and anti-cyclical credit expansion 403–4
rice 392–3
social protection programmes 385, 398, 402–3
soybeans 390, 393
status quo bias and path dependence 114–18
sugarcane 390, 439n11, 446, 450, 451
Supreme Court 396
timeline of food crisis 397
unitary, benevolent government 106, 107
vegetables 391–2
wheat 36, 393
Zero Hunger Programme 402
bread 23, 38, 116–17
see also under specific countries
Bryan, S. 4, 8–9, 16, 51–75, 77n1, 102, 104, 105, 111, 117, 127, 479n1
Bureau, J.C. 468
Burkina Faso 22, 278
Cabral, F.J. 309
Cambodia 106
Canada 7n3, 442, 448, 453
Cardoso, F.H. 387
Carter, C. 439n13
cassava 24, 61–2
see also under specific countries
cereals 6, 8, 11, 14, 15, 24, 29, 43
see also under specific countries; grains
Chapoto, A. 10–11, 45–6, 65, 69, 74, 114, 174–92
Chen, X.W. 368, 371
Chicago Board of Trade data 6
China 8, 10, 12, 13, 14–15, 53, 362–82
11th Five-Year Plan of the National Economy and Social Development 370n4
12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) 377n8
academic researchers and think tanks 93
agricultural development policy 369–70
agricultural policies 366–8
biofuel 14, 66, 362, 369, 375–8, 380–1
cassava 369
Center for Agricultural Policy 93
cereals 367, 378
cointegration analysis method 364–5
Communist Party (CPC) 363, 371, 381
Communist Party (CPC): Central Committee 369, 370, 377
consumers and social protection 368–9
country context 362–4
decision-making framework for long-term development strategies and
law 370
democratic centralism 363
economic growth and ability to respond to external crises 362–3
edible oils 366, 382
error correction model (ECM) 365
and Ethiopia 143
exporting stabilizer (price transmission pattern) 30, 34–6, 46
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 368, 375–6, 382
food price shocks and policy responses 366–7
food price transmission 364–6
fragmented government and uncertainty 109
grain 367, 374, 376, 378, 382
graphical analysis of impacts 378, 379
impacts of policy responses 378–81
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 21–2, 25, 26, 28–9
intervener (output policy response) 62, 64
intervener (policy response) 70
intervener (price policy response) 55
intervener (safety net policy response) 71
key actors in decision-making framework within food and agricultural
policy 89, 371–3
LG-FE (leading group of finance and economy) 371, 374–5, 377, 381
LG-RW (leading group on rural works) 371
long-term responses 369–70
meat 367
Ministry of Agriculture 367–8, 370, 371–2, 374
Ministry of Commerce 367, 371–2, 375
Ministry of Finance 370, 374–5
National Cereals, Oil and Foodstuffs Import and Export Corporation
(COFCO) 367, 375
National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) 367–8, 370, 371, 372, 374–5, 377, 381
National People’s Congress (NPC) 363, 370
(p.492) newspapers/media 372–3, 376–7, 381
Number-One Policy Documents 369, 377n8
oil 378, 380
output policies 65, 66
overall profile of key actors 371
People’s Bank 375
policy responses 74, 75, 88
policy triggers 87
policy-making mechanism 373–81
policy-making process of long-term policy responses 377
policy-making process on major policy responses 373–7
policy-making process and short-term policy responses 374–7
Politburo 363–4
political economy context 370–3
political regime and development goals 363–4
price policies 56, 57, 58, 59
price transmission analysis 380–1
price transmission from international to domestic prices 364–6
private sector and civil society organizations 91
protests 123
research institutes 96, 372
rising prices in world food markets 366
safety net policies 72
short-term responses 366–9
simulation model analysis of impacts 378, 380
social protection programmes 362, 368, 376
sorghum 369
soybeans 364–5, 366, 378, 380–2
Standing Committee 363–4
State Council 363–4, 367, 370, 371, 373, 374–5, 377, 381
State Grain Administration (SGA) 367, 372, 374–5
status quo bias and path dependence 114–18
sweet potatoes 369
think tanks 372, 374, 375–6
trends in domestic and international prices 364
unitary, benevolent government 106, 108
Chinsinga, B. 10, 45–6, 57, 110, 113, 153–72
Chirwa, E.W. 10, 45–6, 57, 110, 113, 153–72
Chmielewska, D. 403
Cirera, X. 221
civil society organizations (CSOs) 84, 85, 87, 89, 91–2, 94, 95, 96
see also under specific countries
Clark, W. 451n27
classical linear model 98
coalitions 85
collective action, policy process as 94–5
Collins, K.J. 6
Commission for Food Security 313
commodity index funds 6
Compton, J. 52, 53
conceptual framework 23–5
conditional transfers, school feeding and public wage increases 71, 72, 73
Conforti, P. 38, 42
core support model 114
corn 6
corruption 30, 39, 74, 108, 120–1, 126, 487
Bangladesh 234, 247–8
Brazil 390
Kenya 202–3
Malawi 185
Vietnam 321
Court, J. 80
crisis vs. non-crisis policy process 94
crude oil 63
Cunguara, B. 222, 223
da Silva, L. 118
dabblers (policy response) 60–2, 63, 68–9, 72–3, 111, 117
dairy products 13
see also under specific countries; milk
Dawe, D. 5, 6, 22, 38
de Gorter, H. 6, 15, 102, 433–53
de Janvry, A. 22
definition of price transmission 23–4
Department for International Development (DFID) 158n2
Dia, D. 309n9
diffusion model 99
Diouf, P. 300
Doha Round agreement 466
domestic policies 27–8
Dominican Republic 22
donor organizations 120
Dorosh, P. 238
Drabik, D. 446
Drèze, J. 232
Durevall, D. 140
Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) countries 197
Ecuador 23
(p.493) Egypt 11–12, 253–72
agricultural production policies 260
agricultural sector 255
baladi bread 256, 261–2, 264, 269
bilateral donors 266
black market 257–8, 264–6
Central Bank 264
cooperatives 266–7
corruption 254–6, 262, 264, 266–7, 270–1
dairy products 261
distribution of total benefits 262
edible oil 255
exchange rate 272
export bans 260–1, 270
export commodity councils 265
external political economy factors 120
favouritism 267
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 256–8, 264–6
food inflation in domestic and international markets 257
Food Observatory 265
food price trends (2004-11) 257–9
Food Security Information Centre 265
food subsidies 259
fragmented government and uncertainty 109, 110
General Agency for the Supply of Commodities (GASC) 39, 256, 260, 263, 270–1
government (GOE) 253, 256, 259, 266
historical review of food price policies 255–7
import tariffs 261, 270
importer (price transmission pattern) 30, 36, 38–39, 46–7
increase in food import prices 258
Information and Decision Support Centre of the Cabinet (IDSC) 265
international organizations 267–8
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 25, 26–7, 28–9, 48
intervener (output policy response) 64
intervener (policy response) 70
intervener (price policy response) 54
intervener (safety net policy response) 71
irrigation 256, 258, 264
kerosene 255
maize 255, 265, 271
media, role of 267
military, role of 267
Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation 264, 265, 267, 268, 271
Ministry of Finance 264–5, 268
Ministry of Health 264
Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources 260, 264, 268
Ministry of Social Solidarity 256, 258n1, 262, 264
Ministry of Trade and Industry 260, 264, 265, 268
Moslem Brotherhood 271
multi-lateral donors 266
National Democratic Party (NDP) 254, 266, 271
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 264, 266
oil 258n1, 262
output policies 65, 66
overview 253–5
policy implications 269–72
policy responses 73, 88, 259–64
political economy dynamics 264–9
price policies 56–7, 58–9
Principal Bank for Development of Agricultural Credit (PBDAC) 260–1, 263, 264, 271
private sector 121–2
procurement and stocking policies 263
protests 124
research institutions 267
safety net (policy response) 261–3
Social Solidarity Minister 268
soybeans 261
status quo bias and path dependence 114–118
sugar 255, 262
tea 255
think tanks 267
trade policies 260–1
vegetables and fruits 258
El-Laithy, H. 262
Enders, W. 439n14
Equity Bank 212
Ethiopia 10–11, 133–50
academic researchers and think tanks 93
Action against Hunger 140
administrative and price control measures 142
agricultural investment, increased 143–4
Agricultural Transformation Agency 66, 79, 144
bilateral donors 148
cereals 141
civil society organizations 148
coffee 138, 145
Commodity Exchange (ECX) 144–5
consumer price index (CPI) 136
Council of Ministers 147
decision-making organ, configuration of 146
(p.494) Development Research Institute (EDRI) 93, 148
Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission 135
donor assistance 144
Economics Association 148
Emergency Food Security Reserve Administration 135, 142
export bans 133, 141
external development partners, role of 148–9
external political economy factors 120
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 134, 138–9, 144, 153
fiscal and monetary measures 141
food price developments 1998–2004 134–5
food price developments 2004–2008 135–6
food price developments post 2008 136–7
Food Security Strategy 135
fragmented government and uncertainty 111
grain 142
Grain Trade Enterprise (EGTE) 142
haricot beans 144
House of People’s Representatives 146, 147
impact of food crisis 140–1
import tariffs 150
inflation 134, 137
international to domestic price transmission during 2007–8 crisis 22, 24, 25, 26, 28–9, 30, 48
intervener (policy response) 56, 62, 64, 70, 71
isolated (price transmission pattern) 30, 41–6, 47
key actors and players in policy process 89
legislative and executive organs, role of 146–7
macroeconomic stability, necessity for 145
maize, 44, 47, 133, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 143, 149
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED) 147, 149
Ministry of Trade and Industry 141, 147
multi-lateral institutions 148
National Bank 136, 141, 147
National Policy for Disaster Prevention and Preparedness 135
New Coalition for Food Security Programme 135
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 142, 143
oil seeds 138
outcomes of policy interventions 149
output policies 64, 65, 66
People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) 146
policy responses 75, 88, 141–5
price policies 57, 58, 59
price transmission from international market to domestic markets 138–40
private sector 121
productive safety net programme (PSNP) 70, 135, 143, 149
protection of the poor (welfare concerns) 146
protests 123–4
rationale for policy interventions 145–6
recent staple food price trends and policy responses 134–41
regional price trends for major food staples 137–8
safety net policies 71
school feeding programmes 145
sesame seeds 144–5
social protection 141, 143, 150
social unrest, avoidance of 145–6
socioeconomic impacts 149
sorghum 42, 140, 141
stakeholders, role of 146–8
status quo bias and path dependence 114–118
teff 43, 44, 140, 141
time line of incidences 134
unitary, benevolent government 107
urban work programmes 145
weather/climate factors 138
wheat 42, 43, 44, 56, 138, 139, 141, 142, 144, 149
European Union 3, 10, 15–16, 345, 434n2, 442, 446–8, 453, 457–74, 487
‘A Better Functioning Food Supply Chain in Europe’ 469
Agricultural Committee 471, 474
agricultural support 467
animal feed 459, 460
anti-cyclical policy pattern 469
and Bangladesh 251
biodiesel 437, 448
biofuel 16, 450n26, 458, 461, 464, 472–3
bread 461
cereals 459, 460, 466, 467, 472
coefficient of variation for global and EU food prices 460
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 457, 461–2, 464, 465–9, 472, 473–4
Consumer price inflation 459n1
COPA-COCECA 468
crisis management toolkit 468
crisis reserve fund 468
dairy products 466, 467, 468, 470, 472, 473
see also milk
(p.495) energy prices 459
environmental groups 458
and Ethiopia 148
European Council 471
European Parliament (EP) 458, 464–5, 468, 469, 471, 474
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 459–60
Food Facility 464–5, 473
global food prices, impacts of changes in 458–61
global prices indices 459
grain 459, 472
greenhouse gas emissions 438
gross domestic product and unemployment 462
health check reforms 467
historical perspective of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 465–6
impact of policies on global food prices 471–2
import tariffs 457, 465–6
index of real farm income per annual working unit 470
international food and development aid 464–5
livestock 459, 461
Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) 1 463
Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) 2: fighting
speculation on food commodities 463–4, 469
meat (beef and pork) 461, 466, 467
milk/milk package 459, 460, 467, 470
negotiations on the future Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 468–9
nominal rates of assistance (NRA) 466
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 464
oils 472
policy responses 461–5
political economy considerations 469–71
price changes and Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 466–8
rapeseed oil 439
safety nets (policy response) 469
single farm payment (SFP) 466
social expenditures 4634
social policy and food aid 461–3
social spending 470, 473–4
sugar 466, 468, 469
unemployment 462
wheat 465
exchange rates 5
export bans 6, 8, 10–11, 47, 52n1, 73–4, 122, 483–4
internal political economic factors 111, 113, 117–18
policy responses 53, 54–5, 56–7, 59–60
political intervention 26, 29
price transmission patterns 41
synthesis of policy processes 86–91
see also under specific countries
exporting stabilizers 30, 34–6, 46
external political economy factors 118–25
private sector 120–2
protests 123–5
Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) 93–4
Fatema, K. 233
Ferreira, F.H.G. 385, 398–9
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 8, 11–12, 102, 481, 484–5
external political economy factors 119, 121
internal political economy factors 105, 113–14, 116
policy responses 63–6, 68
synthesis of policy processes 88, 91–2
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 480, 483
Egypt 265, 266
Ethiopia 148, 149
European Union 458
Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) 23
India 357
Kenya 212, 213
Malawi 158n2
Nigeria 289
Senegal 300, 301, 305, 307, 313
Statistics Division (FAOSTAT) 7n3
Zambia 180
food security committees and taskforces 92
food security monitoring systems 93–4
food subsidies 8
formal organizational units with food security mandate 90–1
fragmented government and uncertainty 9–10, 103, 108, 109–12
framework for study in developing countries 81–6
free traders (price transmission pattern) 30, 32–4, 46
fuel subsidies 12, 63
G20 Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture 465
G20 initiatives 473
Ganguly, K. 14, 56, 67, 74, 108, 112, 339–60
Gardner, B. 38
Gelaw, F. 43
(p.496) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 458
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization
(GATT/WTO): Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) 466
Gergely, N. 311
Ghana 114, 278
Ghoneim, A.F. 12, 57, 65, 116, 253–72
Ghosh, J. 6
Glewwe, P. 62n1
global food markets 4–16
Govereh, J. 175
government goals: unitary, benevolent government 103–9
grains 28–9, 30–1, 53
see also under specific countries; cereals
Grossman, G. 113
Group of 8 (G8) 339
Guatemala 106
Guinea 278
Gulati, A. 14, 56, 67, 74, 108, 112, 339–60
Hai, N.M. 319–36
Haji, J. 43
Hallam, D. 38
Hanlon, J. 222, 223
Hansen, H. 3
Harrigan, J. 156
Harriss, B. 106
Headey, D. 5–6
Helpman, E. 113
Hillman, A. 118–19
Holt, M.T. 439n14
Honduras 22
Huang, J. 14–15, 56, 74, 362–82
Hurt, C. 6, 455n18
implementation challenges 96
import tariffs 6, 8, 11–13, 23n1, 47, 114, 483–4
policy responses 54–5, 57–8, 59, 60–1, 64
political intervention 26, 29
price transmission patterns 37–8
synthesis of policy processes 87–8
see also under specific countries
importers (price transmission pattern) 30, 36–41, 46–7
India 8, 10, 13, 15, 53, 339–60, 443, 481
Aadhar project 358
academic researchers and think tanks 93
Agricultural Produce Market Committee Act 355
agricultural production, increased (input subsidies, investment,
enhanced extension) 351–2
and Bangladesh 238, 251
cereals 14, 344
civil society organizations (CSOs) 92
Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) 358
composition of public expenditure in agriculture 351
Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) National Council on
Agriculture 356
Constitution 355
contribution of various commodities in total food inflation 344
corn 341
cotton 341
crude oil 348
decision-making actors 355–7
domestic price policies (consumer prices, minimum support prices
(MSPs)) 350
economic performance and macroeconomic trends 340–1
edible oils 340, 341, 344, 349
eggs 344, 349
environmental policies and land acquisitions 354
and Ethiopia 143
export bans 14, 346, 348, 350, 353
exporting stabilizer (price transmission pattern) 30, 34–6, 46
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 339, 341–2, 348, 351, 358–9
fiscal stimulus 339
fish 341, 344, 349
Five-Year Plan 341
Food Corporation (FCI) 345, 358
food inflation, key drivers in 349
food price crisis 342–9
foreign direct investment (FDI) 355, 357
formal organizational units with food security mandate 91
fragmented government and uncertainty 110, 111
fruits, vegetables and protein foods 339, 344, 349, 354
import tariffs 350
importer (price transmission pattern) 36, 37
international institutions 357
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 22, 25, 26, 29, 30
intervener (output policy response) 64
intervener (policy response) 62
intervener (price policy response) 55
intervener (safety net policy response) 71
irrigation subsidies 351
key actors and players in policy process 89–90
(p.497) Mahatma Gandhi national rural employment guarantee scheme (MGNREGS) 342
maize 346–7, 350, 359
major food crops: production, trade and consumption 341
manufactured food products 343–4
meat 341, 344, 349
milk and milk products 344, 349
minimum support prices (MSPs) 340
Ministry of Agriculture 355
Ministry of Finance 356
Ministry of Food, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution 355
National Advisory Council 356
National Agricultural Development Programme (NADP) 67, 352
National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research
(NCAP) 93
National Food Security Act (NFSA) 67, 341
National Food Security Bill 356, 358
National Food Security Mission (NFSM) 67, 352
oilseeds cake 341
one time settlement scheme (OTS) 351
output policies 65, 66
Parliamentary Committee 356
percentage change in wholesale price index of food articles and
manufactured food products 343
Planning Commission 356
policy responses 73, 88–9, 349–54
policy triggers 87
political economy context 355–7
political institutions 90
price policies 57, 58, 59
price transmission: causes and impact 347–9
price trends for key food crops 345–7
private sector 121–2
procurement and stocking 352–4
public choice 112
public programmes to boost agricultural activity 352
pulses 340, 341, 344, 349, 350, 352
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) 352
research organizations 96
Reserve Bank 356
right to food movement 92
safety net policies 72, 352
Second Annual Conference of Chief Secretaries 355
Second Green Revolution 352, 354
status quo bias and path dependence 114–118
supply-demand factors 349
Supreme Court 118
trade policies (export bans, import tariffs, exchange rate policies) 350
trade with Senegal 55
trends and patterns in crisis episodes 342–4
unitary, benevolent government 107–8
weather/climate factors 359
input subsidies and tax incentives 63, 64, 67
institutional development and rational choice model 99
interactive model of policy process 98
internal political economic factors 103–18
fragmented government and uncertainty 109–12
government goals: unitary, benevolent government 103–9
policy failures 107–9
policy priorities of country-study governments 104
public choice 112–14
status quo bias and path dependence 114–18
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 483
International Fund for Agricultural Development 212, 289
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 42, 120
Bangladesh 242n6, 246, 251
Brazil 388
China 365
Egypt 256
Ethiopia 141, 147, 148
Kenya 201
Malawi 166
Senegal 308, 309, 310
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 food
crisis 21–48
conceptual framework 23–5
definition of price transmission 23–4
domestic policies 27–8
exporting stabilizers (price transmission pattern) 30, 34–6, 46
free traders (price transmission pattern) 30, 32–4, 46
imperfect market integration 24–5
importers (price transmission pattern) 30, 36–41, 46–7
isolated (price transmission pattern) 30, 41–6, 47
macroeconomic policies 28–29
policy implementation 29–30
political intervention 25–30
price transmission patterns 30–46
trade policies 26–7
(p.498) interveners (price transmission pattern) 61, 62, 63–9, 70–2, 73
isolated (price transmission pattern) 30, 41–6, 47
Japan 120, 435, 453n29
jatropha 5
Jayne, T.S. 122, 164–5, 175, 185, 189, 210
Jenking-Smith, H. 81
Just, D.R. 6
Karp, L. 102
Kenya 11, 197–214
academic researchers and think tanks 93
Agricultural Finance Corporation (AFC) 201
agricultural policies since independence 200
cash guarantee fund 212
Central Planning Unit (CPU) 202–3
cereals 11
Constitution 199
consumption subsidies and safety nets 210–11
controls, era of 200–3
cooperatives 201
corruption 202–3
dream team 202
East Africa Grain Council 199
Economics Scheme of Service 202–3
ERS 202
export bans 207, 209–10
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 207, 211–12
food price trends 203–6
food security monitoring systems 94
Food Security Steering Group 92
food supply response stimulation 211–13
import tariffs 207, 209–10
importer (price transmission pattern) 30, 36, 46–7
Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) 93
Integrated Household Budget Survey (KIHBS) 198
Inter-ministerial Committee on Drought and Food Security 92
international price transmission 206–8
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 22, 24, 26–7, 28, 31, 48
intervener (output policy response) 64
intervener (policy response) 56, 62
intervener (price policy response) 54
intervener (safety net policy response) 71
Kazi Kwa Vijana (KKV) cash-for-work programme 211
Kilimo Biashara 212
Kilimo Plus 212
Land Agricultural Bank (LAB) 201
livestock 211
market-based interventions 208–10
milk 201, 210
Ministry of Agriculture 36, 199, 210
Ministry of Economic Development 90
Ministry of Finance and Planning 210
Ministry of Planning 202
monthly trends in food prices 204
multi-sectoral taskforce 211
National Accelerated Agricultural Input Access Programme (NAAIAP) 66, 212
National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) 199
National Cereals Produce Board (NCPB) 199, 209, 210, 211–12
National Economic Stimulus Programme 213
National Farmers Union 200
National Food Security Committee in the President’s Office 92
National Producers Federation 199
Office of the President 90
output policies 65, 66
percentage changes in food price indices 205
policy recommendations 213–14
policy responses 74, 88, 208–13
policy triggers 87
Price Control Act 1972 (previously Price Control Ordinance 1956) 201
price policies 57
private sector 121–2
protests 124–5
recent political history 199–203
rice 198, 203–5
Rural Development Strategy (KRDS) 202
South African Futures Exchange (SAFEX) 206–8
state boards 200
state-run farmer organizations 200
Strategy for Revitalization of Agriculture (SRA) 202
study approach 198–203
supply-demand factors 208
timeline of government responses to food price crisis 207
unitary, benevolent government 106, 107
weather/climate factors 206, 208
wheat 58, 198, 201, 203–5, 210, 211
Kenyatta, J. 199
Khan, A.A. 247
Kibaki, M. 202, 203
Kirsten, J.F. 32, 113, 116, 125, 407–29
Knops, L. 457–74
Koch, J. 425
Krueger, A.O. 119
(p.499) Kumar, N. 140
Laborde Debucquet, D. 6
Latin America 22
law of one price (LOP) 23–4
legitimacy, increased 95–6
Liberia 278
Loening, J.L. 42, 140
long-term strategy development, crisis as opportunity for 95
Lula da Silva, L.I. 387, 402
Luu, T.D.H. 328
Lyakurwa, W. 3
macroeconomic policies 28–29
Madagascar 106
maize 4–5, 6–7, 7n3, 10, 15, 74, 480, 487
biofuel 5
external political economic factors 119, 121
formal organizational units with food security mandate 91
internal political economic factors 113
international to domestic price transmission 21–4, 26–8, 30–1, 33–4, 36, 40–7
output policies 64, 65
policy responses 74
price policies 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60
price transmission patterns 42, 43
private sector 121
public choice 113
safety net (policy response) 71
Malawi 10, 11, 153–72, 181, 209
academic researchers and think tanks 93
Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation (ADMARC) 27, 113, 157–9, 161–5, 168–71
Agricultural Policy Research Unit (APRU) 93
beans 153–4
Bill of Rights 155
cassava 153
Centre for Social Concern (CSC) 157
civil society organizations 156, 157
Congress Party (MCP) 155
Consumers Association (CAMA) 157
corruption 185
domestic trade restrictions 164–5
export bans 154, 165–8, 170–1
external political economy factors 119
Farm Input Subsidy Programme (FISP) 153, 159, 161n7, 166–7
Farmers Union (FUM) 157, 162, 164–5
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 116–17
food price swings, policies for management of 160–1
food price trends and shocks 158–69
formal organizational units with food security mandate 91
fragmented government and uncertainty 110
Grain Traders Association (GTAM) 163, 164–5, 166–7
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 22, 24, 25, 26, 28–30, 31, 41, 48, 160
international trade restrictions 165–7
intervener (output policy response) 64
intervener (price policy response) 55
intervener (safety net policy response) 71
isolated (price transmission pattern) 30, 41–2, 44–6, 47
Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MoAFS) 154, 157, 161, 164
Ministry of Economic Planning and Development 92
Ministry of Trade and Industry 157, 164, 166
National Association of Smallholder Farmers (NASFAM) 157–8
National Food Reserve Agency (NFRA) 57, 113, 157, 158, 159, 161, 163, 168–9, 170–1
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 92
Office of the President and Cabinet (OPC) 155
output policies 65
policy responses 74, 88–9
policy triggers 87
political system 155–6
price controls 161–3
price swings, impact of policy responses to 167–9
private sector 121–2
public choice 114
rice 153–4, 160
safety net policies 72
stakeholders and key actors in policy-making process 89, 156–8
State House 161
status quo bias and path dependence 114–18
Strategic Grain Reserves (SGR) 162
structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) 158, 163, 165
unitary, benevolent government 107
Vulnerability Assessment Committee 92
weather/climate factors 158
Malaysia 413, 448
Mali 22
Mandela, N. 125
Mangisoni, J. 164–5
Martin, W. 5–6
Mason, M.N. 185, 189
(p.500) Mason, N.M. 114
Massingarela, C. 11, 109, 112, 215–25
Mexico 22
Migot-Adholla, S. 202
milk see under specific countries
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs):
Bangladesh 231, 236
Egypt 267
Kenya 198
Nigeria 289
millet 22, 24
see also Nigeria; Senegal
Minot, N. 8, 41, 42, 44, 138–9
mistrust between government and private sector 8, 10, 11, 120, 121, 122, 125, 487
Zambia 175, 180, 190, 192
Mitchell, D. 447n22
Moi, D.A. 199, 201
monitoring systems, role of 97
Mosca, J. 222
Mozambique 11, 215–25
agricultural production and productivity, increased, promotion of 222
Agriculture Competences (AGRICOM) 221
Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test 219–21
background 215–16
bread 216, 219
cashew nuts 215n1
cassava 61
cereals 24
dabbler (output policy response) 63
dabbler (policy response) 68–9
dabbler (price policy response) 60–2
dabbler (safety net policy response) 73
economy and agricultural sector 216–19
Engle Granger test 220
Food Production Action Plan 105
formal organizational units with food security mandate 91
fragmented government and uncertainty 109
government desire for re-election 224
Green Revolution Strategy 69
Household Budget Survey (2008/9) 215
import tariffs 223
importer (price transmission pattern) 30, 36, 46–7
Institute of Cereals (ICM) 221
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 24, 26, 27, 28, 41, 48
Johansen procedure 220–1
key actors and players in policy process 89
macroeconomic stability 224–5
maize, 36, 39–40, 61, 217, 221, 222
Maputo Declaration 69
Ministry of Trade and Industry 222
Phillips-Perron unit root tests 219–21
Plan for Action for Food Production (PAPA) 69, 222
poor, protection of 223–4
poultry 222
price transmission, degree of 219–21
private sector 121
public choice 112
rationale for policy interventions 223–5
rice 40, 216, 217, 218, 219–21, 222, 225
social unrest, avoidance of 224
staple food consumption and production 217–19
sugar 215n1
tobacco 215n1
trade policy measures 223
trend of growth of economy 222
unitary, benevolent government 107–8
weather/climate factors 217, 223
wheat 217, 218–21, 222, 225
Mubarak, H. 254, 256
Mueller, B. 15, 59, 72, 116, 118, 384–405
Mueller, C. 15, 59, 72, 116, 118, 384–405
multi-lateral donors 148, 251, 266
multiple stream approach 98
Mutharika, B. wa 155, 161, 165–6
Mwanawasa, L. 185
Mwiinga, B. 189
Myers, R.J. 185
Myers, R.L. 210
naïve model 9, 103, 107
Nasser, G.A. 255
Ndao, M. 304–5
Ndiaye, M. 311
Netherlands 180
Nguyen, M.H. 14, 35
Nhate, V. 11, 109, 112, 215–25
Nicaragua 22
Niger Republic 22, 277
Nigeria 11, 12, 275–95
academic researchers and think tanks 93
advocacy coalitions 95
agricultural credit 283
Agricultural Research Council 287
Agricultural Transformation Agenda 79
All Farmers Association (AFAN) 290
Association of Master Bakers 290
cassava 61–2, 277–8, 280
Central Bank 283
cereals 281
civil society organizations (CSOs) 91–2, 95
cocoa 275
coffee 275
cotton 275
crop processing 284
dabbler (output policy response) 63
dabbler (policy response) 68–9
(p.501) dabbler (price policy response) 60–2
dabbler (safety net policy response) 73
decision-making actors 386–91
decision-making factors 291–4
development partners, supportive role of 289
Federal Executive Council (FEC) 287, 290
Federal Ministry of Agriculture 287
Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 92
Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR) 282, 285, 286, 289
Fertilizer Department 92
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 279–80, 289, 291
food consumption patterns, effects on 281
food price trends and shocks 277–81
food prices increase causing further impoverishment 292
food production 283
food reserve and storage facility 283–4
food riot contagion, phobia of 293–4
food security, rising uncertainty about 291–2
Food Security Thematic Group (FSTG) 289
garri 281
grains 281
guaranteed minimum price (GMP) scheme 284
House of Representatives and Senate 286–7
impact of price shifts on stakeholders 280–1
Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER) 93, 281
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 22, 27, 28–9, 48, 278–80
irrigation facilities 280
isolated (price transmission pattern) 30, 41–6, 47
leadership role of government in agenda-setting 286–9
long-term measures 284
maize, 47, 277–8, 281
mass media 289
meat, fish and beverages 281
medium-term measures 282–4
millet 277–8, 281
mopping up operation 281–2
National Assembly 87, 286
National Food Crisis Response Programme (NFCRP) 69, 289, 294
National Food Reserve Agency (NFRA) 285, 287, 289
National Food Security Programme (NFSP) 69, 294
Natural Resources Development Fund 283, 284
persistent food import, unsustainability of 293
policy implications 294–5
policy process 288
policy responses 74, 88, 281–4
policy-making process 285–6
political destabilization, avoidance of 292–3
political economy context 285–94
private sector 91–2, 122
producers’ associations, advocacy role of 290–1
production impact 280
production trend of food staples 280
Rice Farmers Association (RIFAN) 282, 286, 287, 290
roots and tubers 281
rubber 275
seed 280, 289
short-term measures 281–2
small-scale machines, distribution of 282
sorghum 277–8, 281
soybeans 277–8
status quo bias and path dependence 114–18
sugar 275
supply-demand factors 275
tariff waivers 282
vegetables 281
weather/climate factors 276–7
wheat 61, 277–8, 279, 290
yams 61, 62, 280
Nijhoff, J.J. 122
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 9, 84, 89, 95, 120, 480
see also under specific countries
Nordhaus, W. 112
Nyoro, J. 210
Nzuma, J.M. 11, 56, 57, 66, 197–214
observers (policy response) 59–60, 67, 72
oil 5, 39
Olomola, A.S. 12, 44, 61, 69, 126, 275–95
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
countries 434, 440, 442, 466
Ostrom, E. 80
output policies 62–9
dabblers 63, 68–9
interveners 62, 65–7
observers 67
Paarlberg, R. 3
Pakistan 22
palm oil 5, 439n11
path dependence 9–12, 103, 108, 116
Paulos, Z. 4, 139
pay to play model 113
(p.502) Perloff, J. 102
Phat, C.D. 335n11
Philippines 22, 326
Phong, T.T. 335n10
Pinstrup-Andersen, P. 3–16, 479–87
policy consultations 94
policy entrepreneurship model 85–6
policy failures 107–9
policy implementation 29–30
policy learning and diffusion model 99
policy priorities of country-study governments 104
policy processes and food price crisis 76–99
academic researchers and think tanks 93
actors and players, strengthening capacity of 96–7
advocacy coalition framework 94, 99
classical linear model 98
coalitions 85
collective action, policy process as 94–5
crisis vs. non-crisis policy process 94
food security committees and taskforces 92
food security monitoring systems 93–4
formal organizational units with food security mandate 90–1
framework for study in developing countries 81–6
implementation challenges 96
institutional development and rational choice model 99
interactive model of policy process 98
key actors and players 89–90
lessons learned from country studies 94–7
literature review 78–81
long-term policy dialogues and legitimacy, increased 95–6
long-term strategy development, crisis as opportunity for 95
models 98–9
monitoring systems, role of 97
multiple stream approach 98
policy consultations 94
policy learning and diffusion model 99
policy responses 87–9
policy triggers 87
political institutions 90, 94
private sector and civil society organizations 91–2
research organizations, role and independence of 96
stages of policy process 79
stakeholder communication, improved 96
synthesis of policy processes in country studies 86–94
policy responses 51–75
analytical framework 52
political economy of food price policy 3–16, 102–27, 479–87
fiscal costs reduction of short-term interventions 484–5
food supply elasticity and investments increase 485–6
global food markets 4–16
price-related demand for raw materials for biofuel 486–7
public and private sector collaboration improvement 487
public sector grain stocks management 486
risk management tools 486
strengthening of policy-related evidence base 483–7
trade policy and interference in price signals 483–4
economic factors
political institutions 90, 94
political intervention 25–30
domestic policies 27–8
macroeconomic policies 28–29
policy implementation 29–30
trade policies 26–7
political turmoil 8
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers 92
price controls, broad subsidies and monetary policy 54–5, 59, 60
price policies 53–62
dabblers 60–2, 63, 68–9, 72–3
interveners 62, 63–9, 70–2
observers 59–60, 67, 72
output policies 62–9
safety nets 70–3
price supports and farm credit 63, 64, 67
private sector 91–2, 120–2
protests 123–5
public choice 108–9, 112–14
pulses:
Bangladesh 236
see also India
Quisumbing, A.R. 140
Rahman, M. 235
Raihan, S. 37, 61, 68, 72, 120, 231–51
Rajagopal, D. 449
Ramesh Chand, P.S. 348
rapeseed 5
European Union 439
United States 440
Rapsomanikis, G. 38, 160, 208
Rashid, S. 44
rational choice model 99
Rausser, G.C. 15, 433–53, 439n13
Ravallion, M. 106–7
(p.503) rent-seeking model 9–10, 11, 103, 112, 118
research organizations, role and independence of 96
Resnick, D. 3, 13, 24, 70, 112, 296–313
rice 4–5, 6, 7n3, 11–15, 480
exporting stabilizer (price transmission pattern) 34–6
external political economic factors 120, 124
formal organizational units with food security mandate 91
fragmented government and uncertainty 111–12
free traders (price transmission pattern) 32–4
importer (price transmission pattern) 36, 38
internal political economic factors 106, 111–12, 115, 117
international to domestic price transmission 21–3, 26–7, 33–42, 44, 46–8
output policies 63, 64, 65, 66
policy responses 74, 89
price policy response 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61–2
price transmission patterns 39
protests 124
safety net policy response 71
status quo bias and path dependence 114–18
unitary, benevolent government 106
Ricker-Gilbert, J. 114
Robles, M. 22
Romania 461
Rosegrant, M.W. 6
Roubini, N. 109
Rozelle, S. 14–15, 56, 74, 362–82
Russia 10
Sabatier, P. 79, 81
Sachs, J. 109
Sadat, A. 255
Sadoulet, E. 22
safety nets 70–3
dabblers 72–3
interveners 70–2
observers 72
Sall, M. 311, 313
Salvucci, V. 11, 109, 112, 215–25
Sanders, D.R. 6
Sarkozy, N. 465
Schiff, M. 119
self-interest model 11, 103, 108, 112
Selim, H. 259
Sen, A. 232
Senegal 11, 13, 296–313
Agricultural, Forestry and Livestock Act (LOASP) 299, 306, 312
agricultural sector contextualization 297–8
Assistance au Monde Rural (AMR) programme 305, 310
Association of Senegalese Consumers (ASCOSEN) 304
beans 305
bissap plan 299
bread 38, 304, 310, 312
Casamance civil war 298n3
cereal 299, 305, 313
Commission for Food Security 305, 310–11
Common External Tariff (CET) 298
Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) 299
dairy products 13
see also milk
Department of Social Assistance 300
Economic Promotion Fund 307
evolution and manifestations of crisis 301
exogenous shocks facility (ESF) 309
external political economy factors 118, 119
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 299, 306
fuel costs 301
government responses to crisis 301–12
Grand Offensive for Food and Abundance (GOANA) 66, 297, 306–7, 311–12
groundnuts 299
homologation 304n7
importer (price transmission pattern) 30, 36–41, 46–7
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 22, 24, 25, 27, 28–30, 31, 48
intervener (output policy response) 64
intervener (policy response) 56, 62, 70
intervener (price policy response) 55
intervener (safety net policy response) 71
key actors and players in policy process 89–90
key domestic stakeholders and policy preferences 308
macroeconomics and trade 308–9
maize 299, 305, 306, 311
manioc 299, 306
meat, fish, eggs, potatoes and onions 299
milk and milk powder 303, 304, 307, 309, 310, 312
millet 305, 310
Ministry of Agriculture 299, 300, 311
Ministry of Commerce 303, 304, 305, 307, 312
Ministry of Economy and Finance 303
Ministry of the Family 311
Ministry of Livestock 303
Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance 298n3
National Assembly 310
National Confederation of Senegalese Employers (CNES) 303
National Council of Rural Concertation and Cooperation (CNCR) 299, 306
(p.504) National Programme to Support Food Security 307
National Social Protection Strategy (NSPS) 300
National Union of Traders and Industrialists (UNACOIS) 305, 310
Organization of the Islamic Conference 303
output policies 65
Parti Démocratique Sénégal (PS) 298
peanuts 305
policy and politics during Wade’s first term (2000-7) 298–301
policy responses 73, 88–9
poverty, malnutrition and household welfare 309–11
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper 300
price policies 57, 58
production and commerce 311–12
production and commercial support 306–8
protests 124
public choice 112, 114
red zones 310
Reference Stores 307, 312
Return to Agriculture programme (REVA) 299, 306, 311–12
salt 307
seeds 299, 306
sesame 299
social protection policies 297, 300–2, 304–6, 309–13
sorghum 305
Structural Adjustment Programme for the Agricultural Sector (PASA) 298
sugar, oil, tomatoes and soap 307
Targeted Child Nutrition and Social Transfers project 306
timeline of events 302
trade and fiscal measures 303
Union of Professionals of Industries and Mines (SPIDS) 303
vegetables 299
wheat 13, 303, 304, 309, 312
Senghor, F. 300
Senghor, L. 298n3
Sheahan, M. 66
Shikapwash, R. 183
Sierra Leone 278
Sitko, N. 164–5
Slayton, T. 5
Smith, A. 439n13
social protection 13, 15, 27–8, 38–9
Brazil 385, 398
China 362, 368, 376
Ethiopia 141, 143, 150
sorghum 22, 24, 42, 54
see also under specific countries
South Africa 8, 10, 13–14, 15, 160, 407–29
African National Congress (ANC) 116, 408, 423–4, 425
agricultural starter packs 418, 421
agriculture 409–10
Black Administration Act (1927) 409
bread 415
Communist Party (SACP) 424, 425, 426, 428
Competition Commission 107, 408, 419–20, 426, 428–9
Confederation of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) 424, 426
Consumer Union 426
country context 408–10
Department of Agriculture 417
Department of Labour 423
Department of Social Development 421
exchange rate 412
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 418
Food Cost Review 419
food emergency scheme 418
food price trends and shocks 410–14
Food Pricing Monitoring Committee (FPMC) 117, 410–12, 413, 414, 419–20
Food Security initiatives 417
fragmented government and uncertainty 110
free trader (price transmission pattern) 30, 32–4, 46
homestead food gardens 421
integrated food security strategy (IFSS) 417
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 24, 25, 31
Johannesburg Stock Exchange 411
llima/Letsema campaign 421
maize 410–11, 412, 413, 415, 418, 419
Ministry of Finance 420
National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) 419, 427
National Conference 423
National Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry 414, 419, 421, 429
National Development Plan - Vision 2030 425
National Executive Committee 426
National Executive Council 423
National Planning Commission 425
national school nutrition programme 417
National Treasury 412
newspaper articles on food prices 427
non-alcoholic beverages 413
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 426
observer (output policies) 67
observer (policy response) 59
(p.505) observer (safety net policies) 72
policy paralysis 424–5
policy responses 73, 75, 88–9
policy responses following 2002/3 crisis 418–20
policy responses following 2007-9 crisis 420–2
policy responses and the policy-making process 414–22
policy triggers 87
policy-making process and policy impact 414–18
political dispensation post-1994 408–9
political economy context 422–7
political institutions in context of food and agricultural policy 423–6
poverty relief measures 418
pressure groups, public uprising and food riots 426–7
previous food price crises 410–13
price monitoring board 483
price policies 56
price trends for key food items 413–14
protests 125
public choice 113
Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) 417
rice 410, 413, 415
seed 418
social assistance grant programmes 421–2
social relief of distress grant 420
South African Food Cost Review 419
Statistics South Africa (STATS SA) 419
sunflower seed 410
timeline of price changes on selected food items 415
timeline of price peaks and policy responses 416
trade unions 425
trade with Zambia 55
unitary, benevolent government 106
welfare and safety net programmes 421
wheat 36, 410–11, 413, 415
World Development Report 425
South African Futures Exchange (SAFEX) 182–3
Southern African Development Community (SADC) region 407–8, 428
Souza, D. 403
soybeans 5, 6, 15, 108, 487
see also under specific countries
stakeholder communication, improved 96
status quo bias and path dependence 114–18
Steffan, P 304
Stigler-Peltzman rent-seeking model 118
sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) 24, 30, 119, 138
Sudan 209
sugar 5, 39
see also under specific countries
supply management 54–5, 59, 60
supply shocks 8
supply-demand factors 5–7, 23, 31, 484
see also under specific countries
swing voter model 113–14
Swinnen, J. 102, 457–74
Sy, H. 300
synthesis of policy processes in country studies 86–94
Talbot, T. 14, 35, 319–36
Tanzania 40, 91, 121, 181, 209–10
Tarp, F. 3
teff 24, 43–4, 54
Terreblance, S.J. 424
Tetlock, P. 115
Thailand 7n3, 106, 276, 413
think tanks 84n4, 93
Egypt 267
see also China
Timmer, D. 6
Timmer, P. 340
Toreror, M. 6–7
trade policies 26–7
transaction costs 23, 24, 26
Transparency International 255
Troika 180
Trostle, R. 7
Tyner, W. 6, 455n18
Uganda 22, 74, 212
Ukraine 444
Ulimwengu, J.M. 4, 139, 140
unconditional transfers 71, 72, 73
United Kingdom 251, 464
Department for International Development (DFID) 148
United Nations 325
Country Team 68
Development Programme (UNDP) 84n4
UNICEF 305
United States 3, 7n3, 10, 433–53, 487
BalancedFoodandFuel.org 451
and Bangladesh 251
biodiesel 439n11, 440, 447–8
biofuel 14, 15, 434–40, 442–53
biofuel policies and effects on grain prices 438–42
biofuel policies and grain price fluctuations, evolutionary
assessment of 450–1
biofuel policies, market shocks and grain price volatility 449–50
(p.506) Clean Air Act 438
crude oil 442–3, 451, 453
dairy 437
de facto mandates 438
Department of Agriculture (USDA) 453
Department of Energy 453
domino effect 442–5
energy 436
energy and environmental policies 435
energy security goals 437
enforcement and commitment problems 452
environmental policy goals 438
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 453
environmental and renewable energy policies 442
ethanol 437, 438, 439–41, 442, 445–7, 453
export bans 444
external political economy factors 120
Farm Bills 435–6, 453
farm policy goals 437
Farm Security and Rural Investment Act (2002) 436
Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act 435–6
food, agricultural and biofuel policies 435–51
Food, Conservation and Energy Act (2008) 436
Food Security Act (1985) 435
fossil fuel energy markets 434
gasoline 439n11, 447
grain 434–5, 453
greenhouse gas emissions 438
Growth Energy 451n27
import tariffs 435, 437–8, 446, 447n21
information and agency problems 452
livestock 437
macroeconomic conditions 434
maize 15
mandates and subsidies, interactions between 448–9
methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) 438–40
monetary and fiscal policies 435
oil prices 434, 439–40
oilseed 437, 440–3, 445, 453
palm oil 439n11
political economy of farm, energy and environmental policies 451–2
poultry 437
production flexibility contract payments 436
production subsidies 438
rapeseed 440
Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) 436n5, 438
Renewable Fuels Association 451n27
rice 15, 441–4, 445, 453
soybeans 15, 439–40, 442, 446, 448, 451, 453
splash and dash practice 448
sugar 451
supply-demand factors 433n1, 446, 449
sustainability standards 438
tariff rate quotas 438
tax credits 438
unitary, benevolent government 106
weather/climate factors 447, 449
and Zambia 180
United States Agency for International Development (USAID):
Ethiopia 148
Kenya 202
Malawi 158n2, 166
Nigeria 289
Senegal 300, 305, 307, 313
Valdés, A. 119
van Herck, K. 457–74
Vietnam 7n3, 10, 12, 13, 15, 319–36
academic researchers and think tanks 93
agriculture, forestry and fishery (AFF) sector 321
Central Institute for Economic Management (CIEM) 324
close co-operation and co-ordination 322
Communist Party (CPV) 322–3, 324
Constitution 323
corruption 321
country context 320–5
dabbler (output policy response) 63
dabbler (policy response) 68–9
dabbler (price policy response) 60–2
dabbler (safety net policy response) 73
decision-making actors 322–4
Directive 100 policy 325n4
Doi Moi 320
domestic policy space 330–1
equitization 321
export bans 332
exporting stabilizer (price transmission pattern) 30, 34–6, 46
Fatherhood Front 324
fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 320
Food Association (VFA) 330–1, 333, 336
Food Import & Export Association 333
import tariffs 328
Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural
Development (IPSARD) 93
international donor community 325
(p.507) international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 22, 25, 26, 28, 31, 47
key actors and players in policy process 89
legal civil society 324–5
market interventions, timing of 333–4
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) 35, 93, 111, 332–3, 335–6
Ministry of Finance 336
Ministry of Industry and Trade 111, 331, 333, 336
Ministry of Planning and Investment 324
National Assembly (NA) 111, 322–5, 330, 332
National Defence and Security Council 324
non-political actors 324–5
oil 321
Ordinance on Prices 330
Party Congress 322
policies 329–31
policy responses 74, 88, 334–5
policy triggers 87
policy-making process 323
political institutions 90
political structure 322
prices 331–5
private sector 121–2
research organizations 96
socioeconomic context 321–2
status quo bias and path dependence 114–18
supply-demand factors 332–3
Supreme People’s Court 324
Supreme People’s Procuracy 324
unitary, benevolent government 106, 107
Vink, N. 412
Volden, C. 81
Vu, L. 62n1
Watson, D.D. II 3, 4, 9, 12, 66–7, 88, 102–27, 479n1, 480
weather/climate factors (adverse/extreme weather events) 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, 95, 480, 486
Wen Jiabao 367–8
West African countries 278, 313
West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) 298, 303
wheat 4–5, 6, 7n3, 11, 13, 14, 15, 480
exporting stabilizer (price transmission pattern) 35–6
free traders (price transmission pattern) 32–4
importer (price transmission pattern) 36
internal political economic factors 106, 115
international to domestic price transmission 21–3, 26–7, 33–6, 38–40, 42–4
output policies (policy response) 63, 64, 65
price policies (policy response) 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 61
price transmission patterns 39
safety nets (policy response) 71
status quo bias and path dependence 114–18
unitary, benevolent government 106
see also under specific countries
Wiggins, S. 52, 53
Workneh, S. 4, 139
World Bank 42, 84n4, 103, 119, 120
Bangladesh 235, 242n6, 246, 251
Doing Business Index 321
Egypt 254, 256, 259, 262
Ethiopia 135, 140, 147, 148
European Union 466
India 357
Kenya 201, 212
Senegal 305
Vietnam 325
Zambia 180
World Food Programme (WFP):
Egypt 256, 260, 261, 265, 266
Ethiopia 142, 143, 144, 148
Senegal 305, 313
World Trade Organization (WTO) 203, 458, 466, 468, 471, 474, 484
Wright, B.D. 6, 7
yams 61–2, 280
Yang, J. 14–15, 56, 74, 362–82
Young, J. 80
Zambia 10–11, 174–92, 481
academic researchers and think tanks 93
Agricultural Marketing Act 192
cereals 178
Co-operative Federation 176
Consumer Association (ZACA) 178–9
consumer subsidies 184–5
country context 175–88
Disaster Management Consultative Forum 111
exchange rates and inflation rate (2001-11) 183
export bans 174, 181, 189
external political economy factors 119
Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) 181
Farm Input Subsidy Programme (FISP) 179, 185, 191–2
(p.508) fertilizer/fertilizer subsidies 179, 185–6, 188, 191–2
Food Reserve Agency (FRA) 176, 177, 180, 182–3, 184, 186, 189, 190, 191–2
formal organizational units with food security mandate 91
fragmented government and uncertainty 110
Grain Traders Association (GTAZ) 178, 182
Indaba Agricultural Policy Research Institute (IAPRI) 93
inflation rate 188
input subsidy 185–6
interest groups 178–80
international to domestic price transmission during 2007-8 crisis 25, 26, 28–9, 31, 48
intervener (output policy response) 64
intervener (policy response) 56
intervener (price policy response) 55
intervener (safety net policy response) 71
isolated (price transmission pattern) 30, 41–2, 44–6, 47
Jesuits Centre for Theological Reflection (JCTR) 178
key actors and players in policy process 89, 176–80
memorandum of understanding (MOU) 182
Millers Association (MAZ) 178–9, 182–3, 189
Minister of Information and Broadcasting Services 183
Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (MAL) 111, 177–8, 180–1, 182, 184, 185–6, 192
Ministry of Finance and National Planning (MoFNP) 174, 181, 182
Ministry of Justice 182
mistrust between government and private sector 175, 180, 190, 192
Movement for Multi-party Democracy (MMD) 176, 185
National Agricultural and Marketing Board (NAMBOARD) 176
National Farmers Union (ZNFU) 178–9, 182, 186, 189
nominal price trends (2001-11) 187
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 175
output policies 65, 66
past food crises, price trends and price transmission 180–1
policy responses 73, 88, 181–7
policy triggers 87
poor, impacts on 188–90
price policies 57
private sector 120–1
producer price support through FRA 186
producer-oriented policies 185–7
protests 123
public choice 114
recommendations 190–2
Revenue Authority 177
rice 175, 178
safety nets (policy response) 72
South African Futures Exchange (SAFEX) 182–3, 187–8
soybeans 175, 179
status quo bias and path dependence 114–18
tax changes 186–7
trade-oriented policies 181–4
Treasury, impact to 190
unitary, benevolent government 106, 107
weather/climate factors 180
wheat 175, 178, 179
world prices and domestic food prices 187–8
Zilberman, D. 449
Zimbabwe 45, 91
and Malawi 159, 160, 163, 165–6, 168, 170
Zulu, B. 122