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Rethinking the Scottish RevolutionCovenanted Scotland, 1637-1651$
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Laura A. M. Stewart

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198718444

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718444.001.0001

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The Covenanted State

The Covenanted State

Chapter:
(p.171) 4 The Covenanted State
Source:
Rethinking the Scottish Revolution
Author(s):

Laura A. M. Stewart

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718444.003.0005

This chapter proposes a new framework for understanding the historical significance of the Covenanted state in Scottish, British, and European terms. Although Covenanted Scotland can be used to endorse Charles Tilly’s dictum that war ‘made’ the state, this achievement cannot be divorced from the confessional agenda that drove archipelagic conflict, legitimated the creation of new administrative and fiscal structures, and engaged people in the work of raising money and men. An overview of the situation prevailing during the previous half-century illustrates why change, on such a dramatic scale, became necessary after 1638. Influenced by Swedish and Dutch, but especially English, models, the Covenanters transformed the fiscal capacity of the state. Change did not make the Scottish government strong enough to resist the English invasion. However, this fact should not obscure the lasting legacy of fiscal and administrative change during the 1640s.

Keywords:   taxation, state, excise, assessment, credit, debt, loans, army, British civil wars

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