Drawing on the different themes of the different chapters and bringing them together, this Conclusion explains the limited and specifically servile role which Jews were expected to play in a typical papal vision of Christian society that in itself promoted a gradual hardening of Christian attitudes. Nevertheless, the Conclusion also argues that the aim of papal pronouncements was never to degrade the Jews as such. Rather, it was to satisfy the requirements of both Christian theology and the developing idea of a specifically papal authority over Jewish communities. Hence for both social and political reasons popes found it increasingly difficult to retain the spirit of their continuing Pauline/Augustinian theology in the changing social and political conditions of the age.
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