This chapter looks at the use of force to protect populations from genocide and mass atrocities and especially at some of the controversies that arose from the 2011 intervention in Libya. The chapter highlights Brazil’s “responsibility while protecting” idea which aims to make Security Council decision-making more transparent, accountable, and focused on prevention. It also sets out ways in which states, the UN Security Council, and the UN secretariat might improve their practice to avoid some of the problems that arose during the intervention in Libya. Focusing especially on efforts to prevent genocide and mass atrocities, improve the assessment and analysis of situations, and mainstreaming R2P’s goals through the UN system, it suggests that modest changes to practice will make it easier for the international community to respond decisively to the next crisis.
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