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Empires at War1911-1923$
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Robert Gerwarth and Erez Manela

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780198702511

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198702511.001.0001

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The Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire

(p.17) 1 The Ottoman Empire
Empires at War

Mustafa Aksakal

Oxford University Press

This chapter investigates the revolutions in the social and political organization of the Ottoman imperial domains – the Balkans and today’s “Middle East” – from the 1908 Young Turk Revolution to the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, although this transformation cannot be considered to have ended then, or to have ever been completed. The instability that marked this period was replaced by equally unstable regimes, and its aftershocks have continued to define the region. The great number of casualties, displaced people, and forced migrations produced long-term socioeconomic consequences: urban populations did not return to pre-war levels until the early 1950s.

Keywords:   Balkan Wars, First World War, Ottoman Empire, Turkish Republic, successor states

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