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Emotion Explained$
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Edmund T. Rolls

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780198570035

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570035.001.0001

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The brain mechanisms underlying emotion

The brain mechanisms underlying emotion

Chapter:
(p.63) Chapter 4 The brain mechanisms underlying emotion
Source:
Emotion Explained
Author(s):

Edmund T. Rolls

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570035.003.0004

Brain organization for emotion — how emotional states are implemented in our brains, and the function of different brain regions in emotion — is one of the topics of this chapter. This chapter describes neural representation of primary reinforcers (taste, pleasant touch, pain). Other stimuli are analysed to the object level before their emotional significance is assessed by stimulus-reinforcement learning; this is because it is generally a property of objects (including people) that they are associated with reward or punishment, not of edges in a scene, tones, etc. The chapter also describes learning about what is rewarding or punishing, stimulus-reinforcement association learning; and amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and cingulate cortex. The subgenual cingulate cortex and depression are covered. Output pathways for emotional responses to basal ganglia, including ventral striatum for learned reinforcers are also explained. The chapter also mentions the basal forebrain and hypothalamus, cholinergic pathways, and Alzheimer's disease. The effects of emotion on cognitive processing and backprojections to the cerebral cortex are also topics in this chapter.

Keywords:   brain mechanisms, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, cingulate cortex, emotional learning, reinforcers, depression

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